Axillary lymph nods. Group b2 . Adel Majed Almunlf. 433025168. 1. Structures of the lymphatic system.
The lymph travels through an extensive network of vessels known as the lymphatic vessels. These vessels are generously spread throughout the entire body, present in nearly every tissue of the body. These vessels, similar to the circulatory vessels, are composed of smaller lymphatic capillaries that converge to form collecting vessels. These vessels then merge even further to form what is known as a lymphatic trunks, which give rise to the lymphatic ducts. There are two major lymphatic ducts in the body; the right lymphatic duct, which drains the right arm and right side of the trunk, head and neck, and the thoracic duct, which drains the remaining portions of the body.
Lastly, the lymph nodes are a small organ the size of a pea, located numerously throughout the body. These nodes serve as the site of filtration for the myph fluid and activate specialized cells found within the lymph. The lymph nodes can become swollen or enlarged when infection is present.
It transports white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes into the bones .
Lie along the lower border of the pectoralis minor behind the pectoralis major muscle.
Receive lymph from the lateral part of the breast and the superficial vessels from the thoracoabdominal wall above the level of the umbilicus.
Lie along the medial side of
the axillary vein.
They receive most of the
lymph vessels of the upper limb.
Lie in the central of the axilla and it it is embedded in fat.
They receive lymph from :
Lie in the interval between the
deltoid and pectoralise major
muscle along the course of the
They receive lymph from the superficial vessels from the lateral side of the hand, the forearm and the arm.
The lymph vessels accompany the cephalic vein.
Lie at the apex of the axilla at the out border of the first rib.
They receive lymph from all the other axillary nodes.
It drain into right lymphatic trunk on the right side.
It drain into the thoracic duct on the left side.
Histology : is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals.
The lymph node is surrounded by a fibrous capsule. The substance of the lymph node is divided into the outer cortex and the inner medulla surrounded by the cortex all around except at the hilum, where the medulla comes in direct contact with the surface.
Variable size (6-18um)
• smallest are quiescent
• Intensely stained
• Slightly indented
• Spherical in shape
• Cytoplasm appears as a pale blue rim around nucleus
T lymphocytes (T cells) that are involved in cell-mediated immunity and
B lymphocytes (B cells) that are involved in humoral immunity,
both types originate from stem cells in bone marrow
• T Lymphocytes (thymus-dependent)
• Have a long life span
• Involved in cell mediated immunity
• B Lymphocytes (B cells)
• Variable life span
• Involved in the production of circulating antibodies
The outer cortex consists mainly of the B cells arranged as follicles, which may develop a germinal center when challenged with an antigen, and the deeper cortex mainly consisting of the T cells. There is a zone known as the subcortical zone
The medulla contains large blood vessels, sinuses and medullary cords that contain plasma cells secreting antibody.
Mechanical filtration: physically stopping particles from progressing.
Biological filtration: biological activity of cells to destroy and remove particles
If overwhelmed, lymph nods can become infected or damaged. (adenitis)
Lymphoid tissue of the lymph nods is the site for final stages of maturation of some lymphocytes and monocytes
( white blood cells which produce antibodies)
Lymphopoiesis is the process in which lymphocytes are created
The end product of this process is NK cells, T cells, B cells and plasma
Over 80% of all female breast cancers occur among .women aged 50+ years
women who have a close relative who has/had breast or ovarian cancer are more likely to develop breast cancer.
women who have had breast cancer, are more likely to develop the disease again.
women with more dense breast tissue have a greater chance of developing breast cancer.
post-menopausal obese and overweight women may have a higher risk of developing breast
women who have had some types of benign (non-cancerous) breast lumps are more likely to develop cancer later on.
The stage of cancer indicates the size of the tumor of abnormal cells and whether or not those cells are contained to the place of origin. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), indicating the cancer cell growth starts in the milk ducts.
WHAT DOES THE TERM, “IN SITU” MEAN?
” Three possible types of “in situ carcinoma” of the breast tissue are:
• DCIS - Ductal carcinoma in situ
• LCIS - Lobular carcinoma in situ
Paget disease of the nipple
Stage 1 can be divided into Stage 1A and Stage 1B
STAGE 1A BREAST CANCER
STAGE 1B BREAST CANCER
This stage is divided into groups:
STAGE 2B BREAST CANCER MEANS ONE OF THE FOLLOWING DESCRIPTIONS APPLIES.
STAGE 3B BREAST CANCER MEANS THE FOLLOWING DESCRIPTIONS APPLIES.
Stage 3 BREAST treatment
Stage 3C breast cancer is divided into operable and inoperable stage 3C breast cancer. However, the term “inoperable” is not the same as “untreatable.”