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Chapter 8. Setup Reduction. Setup Reduction Goal. To drastically reduce the time it takes from when a customer places an order to when it is delivered to the customer’s receiving dock.

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chapter 8

Chapter 8

Setup Reduction

setup reduction goal
Setup Reduction Goal
  • To drastically reduce the time it takes from when a customer places an order to when it is delivered to the customer’s receiving dock.
    • Makes it feasible to fully utilize its assets by producing varying parts using the same manufacturing equipment.
    • Reduces inventory by supporting building products only after a customer’s order.

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inventory reduction
Inventory Reduction
  • Storage space must be supplied for the maximum inventory conditions.
  • Switching from a one-month lot size to a one-day lot size reduces the required inventory space by 97%.

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quality improvement
Quality Improvement
  • Quality problems and defects related to the setup process are reduced because:
    • Setup errors are decreased
    • Trial runs of the new part are eliminated
  • If defective parts are not produced, defective parts cannot be shipped.
  • Quality problems show up quickly
    • Smaller lot sizes, shorter assy time.

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setup definitions
Setup Definitions
  • Setup time
    • The elapsed downtime between the last production piece of part “A” & the first good production piece of part “B”.
  • Internal setup
    • That part of the setup which must be done while the machine is shut down.
  • External setup
    • That part of the setup which can be done while the machine is still running

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goals of the setup initiative
Goals of the Setup Initiative
  • Elimination of all waste categories associated with the setup process
  • Reduction of setups to the one step process
  • Reduction of the setup times to “0”.

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  • Setup reduction is a powerful tool which improves a plant’s ability to provide customer satisfaction while better utilizing its assets
  • Readily adopted by a plant’s manufacturing team because they are easily implemented, have relatively low cost, and provide quick relief to the tedious drudgery of long setups.

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kaizen events single minute exchange of dies smed
Kaizen Events – Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED)

Complete the External Set-up checklist:

  • Molds/dies, tools, fixtures, materials, and gauges
  • Process information and storage locations

Set-up Reduction Observation form:

  • Provide element description
  • Note the time required to perform the task
  • Define the activity as P, R, L, or A
  • Note the activity as Internal or External

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kaizen events p r l a
Kaizen Events – P.R.L.A.

P (Preparation)

  • Actions performed to support the changeover process
  • Ensures all parts, tools, and dies are located in their proper locations before and after a changeover has occurred
  • Includes both transportation and storage of these items
  • The quality of the materials and tooling being used must be verified

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kaizen events p r l a10
Kaizen Events – P.R.L.A.

R (Replacement)

  • Includes mounting, replacing, securing, and removing of dies, tooling, blades, etc. after completion of processing
  • The attachment of parts and tools needed to perform the next job

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kaizen events p r l a11
Kaizen Events – P.R.L.A.

L (Locating)

  • Refers to the measurements, settings, and calibrations that must be performed to successfully complete a process
  • Performing the following activities places items in their proper position:
    • Centering
    • Aligning
    • Dimensioning
    • Adjusting temperature and pressure

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kaizen events p r l a12
Kaizen Events – P.R.L.A.

A (Adjusting)

  • Actions repeated in order to attain the correct machine setting to produce an acceptable part
  • Most difficult aspect of the changeover process
  • Frequency depends on the pre-planning and accuracy of previous steps

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internal vs external setup elements
Internal vs. ExternalSetup Elements


  • Elements that can only be performed while the machine is shut down
  • Utilize checklists and work instructions


  • Elements that can be performed while the machine is running

Separating internal and external operations can reduce internal setup time by 30 to 50%

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converting internal to external setup
Converting Internal toExternal Setup
  • Re-examine operations to see if any steps were mistakenly assumed to be internal
  • Analyze ways to convert internal steps to external
  • Move required materials and tools to the workstation prior to the start of changeover
  • Remove previous tools and materials after the changeover is completed; or, use separate material handlers for the task

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standardize function
Standardize Function

Where possible, standardize:

  • Sizes and dimensions of all machine parts and tools
  • Functional elements of tooling, fixtures, molds/dies, etc.

Standardization requires uniformity necessary for setup operations

  • Clamping
  • Centering
  • Dimensioning
  • Expediting
  • Grasping

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promote clamps and one touch fasteners
Promote Clamps andOne-touch Fasteners
  • Use “one-touch” functional methods such as wedges, cams, clamps, or springs
  • Use interlocking methods that simply fit and join two parts together
  • Analyze the direction and magnitude of the force required in clamping methods

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use intermediate jigs
Use Intermediate Jigs

Intermediate Jigs:

  • Reduce external and internal setup time
  • Can be used on large presses with multiple dies of different sizes to reduce clamping and positioning time

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adopt parallel operations
Adopt Parallel Operations
  • Two people performing operations simultaneously reduce waste of movement
  • Increases operating rate of the machine
  • Parallel operations can reduce setup times by more than 50%

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eliminate adjustments
Eliminate Adjustments

Settings vs. Adjustments

  • Settings occur when the position of a limit switch is changed
  • Adjustment occurs when the limit switch is tested and repeatedly adjusted at a new position

Adjustment can be eliminated if a gauge is used to precisely determine the correct position of the limit switch

  • Use dial gauge or numerical control device for greater precision
  • Use calibration markings on the machine

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  • SMED is an analytical approach to setup improvements
  • Only one component of the SMED process
  • Most costly technique for reducing changeover times
  • Use only after all other techniques have been implemented

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summary part ii
Summary, Part II
  • Increase availability/up-time
  • Create additional throughput at no cost
  • Standardize the changeover process
  • Promote buy-in from employees

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smed service focus
SMED – Service Focus


  • Overview of SMED/quick change-over methodology
  • Examine SMED application examples in non-manufacturing applications
  • Summary

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smed history of setup reduction
SMED – History of Setup Reduction
  • Toshiro Ikeda
  • Developed by the Japanese
  • Incorporated into the Toyota Production System
  • Shingeo Shingo
    • Father of SMED and Poka Yoke
    • Shingo prize named in his honor

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smed the steps
SMED – The Steps
  • Select high-impact initial implementation targets
  • Establish a baseline
  • Document and study four elements:
    • Internal and external waste
    • Replacement and adjustment waste
  • Move internal elements to external
  • Waste elimination
  • Commit to continuous improvement cycles

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high impact targeted processes
High Impact Targeted Processes

Select an area that will have a significant impact on the organization

  • Bottlenecks
  • High rework occurrences due to poor setup procedures
  • Learning curve each time process is performed
  • Low reliability of results
  • Customer complaints about company response time to a change in services

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establish a baseline
Establish a Baseline

Baselines are best established using video of the existing process:

  • Visually depicts the process
  • Permits multiple viewings to study the process
  • Retains objectivity
  • Gate-to-gate view ideal

Document results in a worksheet

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document study internal external waste
Document & StudyInternal & External Waste

Internal Waste

  • Elements that can only be done while the process is not running

External Waste

  • Elements that are done before the process stops for change-over and after it resumes

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elements of internal waste
Elements of Internal Waste

The two sub-categories of internal waste

  • Replacement Waste
    • Time and resources
  • Adjustment Waste
    • Effort to get process stabilized making good outputs

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moving internal waste to external
Moving Internal Waste to External

Where possible, internal elements should be switched to external

Reducing Waste

  • Internal Waste:
    • Address these wastes first
    • Reduce exchange and change waste
    • Reduce human effort and “walking”
    • Error-proof process to eliminate controllable variation
  • External Waste:
    • Expends resources
    • Reduce human effort and “walking”
    • Examine the 5S’s

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commit to continuous improvement
Commit to Continuous Improvement
  • Similar to Kaizen, never quit reducing changeover times
  • Select different team members
  • Expand the scope of team members to include:
    • Equipment manufacturers
    • Software developers
    • Suppliers of information or materials

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inclass team exercise
Inclass Team Exercise
  • Performing a software upgrade – current process:
    • Shutdown the system for all users
    • Find the new software in the next room
    • Find the installation instruction in the package
    • Read the instructions
    • Referencing instruction page. Load the new software
    • Verify the flags are set for your desired features
    • Run test reports to verify changes
    • Fill out log book for changes made
    • Make file for retention of software disks
    • Release the system for use by the organization

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in class team exercise answer
In-class Team Exercise (Answer)
  • Steps that should be EXTERNAL
    • Shutdown the system for all users
    • Find the new software in the next room
    • Find the installation instruction in the package
    • Read the instructions
    • Referencing instruction page. Load the new software
    • Verify the flags are set for your desired features
    • Run test reports to verify changes
    • Fill out log book for changes made
    • Make file for retention of software disks
    • Release the system for use by the organization

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  • Majority of initial setup reduction activities yield 25% to 75% reduction in internal changeover time with no capital invested
  • Follow a step-by-step process
  • Utilize teams
  • Commit to continuous improvement

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