History of antisemitism
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History of Antisemitism. Antisemitism. Do you have any personal experience with antisemitism?. Antisemitism. Do you have any personal experience with antisemitism? What is the meaning of the word?. Antisemitism. Do you have any personal experience with antisemitism?

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  • Do you have any personal experience with antisemitism?


  • Do you have any personal experience with antisemitism?

  • What is the meaning of the word?


  • Do you have any personal experience with antisemitism?

  • What is the meaning of the word?

  • When did it start?


  • Do you have any personal experience with antisemitism?

  • What is the meaning of the word?

  • When did it start?

  • What is it caused by?

Antisemitism in antiquity
Antisemitism in Antiquity

  • Anti = against

  • Sem (Shem) = patriarch, one of the three sons of Noah

  • Caused by ignorance and irrational fear of unknown and different

  • Ancient Rome and Greece

    • Against monotheism

    • Ignorance – believed that Jews sacrify Greek kids in the Temple

      • Believed that Jews spread leprosy – a reason of the expulsion from Egypt

    • Jews refused to asimilate and continued to respect the tradition

Antijudaism of the church
Antijudaism of the Church

  • Jews are against the mainstream beliefs and thus are responsible for their suffering

  • Jews = Old Israel

  • Church = New Israel

    • „The only and real“

  • Johannes Chrysostomus (Church father, 4th c.)

    • Jews are equal to evil and are on the level of animals

    • Since the 10th c. – devil portrayed as a buck with a Jewish nose

    • Jews paralelled to annoying insect  can be chased away or stamped out with impunity

Medieval antisemitism
Medieval Antisemitism

  • „It would be licit to hold Jews because of their crimes (of failing to embrace Christianity) in perpetual servitude, and therefore the princes may regard the possesions of Jews as belonging to the State.“

    St. Thomas Aquinas, De Regimine Judeorum

Church triumphant over synagogue, Strassbourg, c. 1230

Medieval antisemitism1
Medieval Antisemitism

  • 313 – Milan Edict – legalized christianity but not judaism

  • 6th c. Codex of Justinian

    • Jews are not allowed to hold public functions, build new synagogues and have sexual intercourse with Christians

  • 11th (1095-9) and 12th (1147-9) c. – crusades to free God´s tumb from muslims – on the way massacred Jews bloody pogroms (Worms, Mainz, Speyer)

  • 13th c. – Jews became dependent on the royal power and were gradually isolated from their neighbourhood

    • „servi camerae regiae“

1215 – IV. Lateran Council

  • Jews have to wear a distinctive garb

  • Consistent separation of Jews and Christians

  • Jews are not allowed to own or rent any land

  • Limited in crafts

  • Merchants, money lenders - medieval antisemitism often inspired by economy reasons

Black death
Black Death

  • Bulbonic Plague, 1347-51

  • In many places, attacking Jews was a way to criticize the monarchs who protected them, and monarchic fiscal policies, which were often administred by Jews

Martin luther
Martin Luther

  • Antijudaism

  • Expected Jews to accept the new religious truth

  • On Jews and Their Lies, 1543

    • Proposes to burn synagogues and destroy Jewish houses. Jews that refuse baptism shall be closed to stables. Jews shall not be allowed to hold books and to move freely.

    • Inspired Nazis


  • 1516 – Venice – geto nuovo = new foundry – a separated part of the town reserved to Jews

  • Jews were not allowed to spend a night out of the ghetto and to leave the ghetto in the night

  • Ghettos were often overcrowded

  • The 1st German one in Frankfurt since the 15th c.

  • In Europe with the exception of France untill the 19th c. Exceptionaly in the muslim countries

  • Prague, Polná, Boskovice, Třebíč

Distinctive garbs
Distinctive Garbs

  • Systematically since the IVth Lateran council

  • Diverse colours and shapes

    • Yellow or red-and-white circle or a band on the coat, special capes, hats or ruffs, hair ribbons

    • Italy – red aprons, blue ribbons

    • Germany, Austria – yellow hat – in the sign of the Prague Jewish community

      • Abolished by Joseph II in 1781

Accusation of host dessecration
Accusation of host dessecration

  • IV th Lateran Council

    • An unleavened bread will be replaced by a host and laics will not receive wine during the communion

    • New dogma: Christ´s blood and body are present in the host

  • 1243 – first accusation of Jews in Germany (Belitz by Berlin) of host dessecration

  • False trials and pogroms (14th c. Brussels, Deggendorf, Knoblauch, Pulkau, Kouřim)

Accusation of ritual murder the blood libel
Accusation of ritual murder (the blood libel)

  • Norwich – 1144 – accusation of crucifying a Christian boy before Eastern

  • Jews murder innocent children and virgins and need their blood as a remedy

  • Led to numerous pogroms – e.g. Prague, 1336 several tens of Jews were burnt for „using Christian blood“ – „Jews need blood to prepare matza.“

Forced re education baptism and limitation of natality
Forced re-education, baptism and limitation of natality

  • Forced baptism

    • Spain – 14/15th c. – anusim (marranos)

    • Jews were forced to participate on church services on Saturday

    • Toledo - Jewish children aged seven were placed in Christian families

  • 1726, Charles VI of Habsburg – Familiant Law

    • a limited number of Jews = only the oldest son had a right to get married


  • Expulsion from Frankfurt, 1614

    • „1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the gate and herded onto ships on the river Main.“

  • 1290 from England – untill 1650

  • France – Jews expulsed from 1306/ 1394 untill 1789

  • Italy – 1350-1450

  • Russia – Jews not allowed since the 14th c- untill 1722

  • 1492 – 97 - Jews expulsed from Spain and Portugal – about 100 thousand victims

  • 1541 expulsed from the Bohemian kingdom

  • 1744 Maria Theresa expulsed Jews from the Bohemian Lands


  • 1389 Prague

  • „storm“ in Russian; term used since 1871 – attack of the Odessa Jewish colony

  • 1648 – 49 Chmielnicki and Cossaks murdered 100 thousand Jewish inhabitants of Poland, Lithuania and Belarus dramatic drop of the Jewish population (25%, 250 thousand)

  • 1881 pogroms in Ukraine after the murder of the tsar Alexander II emigration of 2 milion Jews to the USA; birth of Zionism

  • Russia, Ukraine – 60 thousand Jewish victims of the civil war 1917 - 1921