Microcomputer Architecture

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# Microcomputer Architecture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Microcomputer Architecture. Please fill out the 3x5 card. Name Prior math/stats/comp sc coursework Any computer expertise Planned post-grad plans Hopes/fears about this class! Something I should know about you or might find interesting (helps me remember)

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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Microcomputer Architecture' - mari

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Presentation Transcript
Please fill out the 3x5 card
• Name
• Prior math/stats/comp sc coursework
• Any computer expertise
• Something I should know about you or might find interesting (helps me remember)
• A Password (make it one you will remember, but not one you also use for anything important. This is for web page access)
Computers - Basic Architecture
• Computers have:
• Input
• Output
• Storage (Memory)
• Connectivity (can be seen as an IO channel)
Some simple binary arithmetic
• Why Binary?
• Why Decimal?
• People count by 10s
• Because we have ten fingers
• Computers count by ones
• Because magnetic storage media can electricity can be easily set to “on” and “off”
• Or 0 and 1
Bits and Bytes
• All of the data, programs, and circuitry are digital or binary in nature, meaning that they are comprised of the elements 0 and 1.
• This is somewhat different than standard (not digital or HD) radio, television, and vinyl or LP records, which operate on analog methods.
• Analog electronics means that devices use an electrical signal that has amplitude or magnitude instead of a stream of 0's and 1's.
• Why binary? Because the storage of information on magnetic media is accomplished by arranging bits of metallic oxide in one of two alignments, corresponding to 0 or 1.
• This allows for massive numbers of 0s and 1s to be stored in a very small space. This smallest unit of information (a 0 or a 1) is called a bit.
• Collections of bits can be organized into larger chunks.
• 4 bits = 1 nibble
• 8 bits = 2 nibbles = 1 byte
ASCII Characters
• A single byte, consisting of 8 bits can represent 256 different numbers
• The largest number represented by n bits is 2n-1
• Hence 28-1 = 255
• Including 0, that makes 256 different numbers
• These 256 numbers have been standardized to the ASCII character set. All PCs use the same number to represent the same character.
• This will expand with Unicode
What Do Computers Do?
• Computers Subtract
• Computers multiply
• Which is adding multiple times
• Computers Divide
• Which is negative adding a bunch of times
• Computers do more complicated things –
• Square roots, power functions, exponentiation, logarithms
• All by numeric approximation – which is addition
• They move around the data that they add.
• That’s all…
The CPU
• Functions as the arithmetic unit of the computer
• It operates according to it’s clock cycle
• A 1.8 GHz computer has a clock that cycles 1.8 billion times per second
• Adding Binary Numbers is Simple
• 3 Rules
• 0 + 0 = 0
• 1 + 0 = 1
• 1 + 1 = 10 ( = 0 and carry the 1 to the next higher column)
Does this look familiar
• Binary Addition is the electrical/electronic application of the “exclusive or” from logic
• Many numbers that are encountered frequently in computers arise from binary arithmetic
Get on the Bus
• Computers read data on the “buses” that the CPU has
• Two Buses of note
• Data Bus
• The data read into (or written from) the CPU or memory