microcomputer architecture
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Microcomputer Architecture

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 20

Microcomputer Architecture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 242 Views
  • Uploaded on

Microcomputer Architecture. Please fill out the 3x5 card. Name Prior math/stats/comp sc coursework Any computer expertise Planned post-grad plans Hopes/fears about this class! Something I should know about you or might find interesting (helps me remember)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Microcomputer Architecture' - mari


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
please fill out the 3x5 card
Please fill out the 3x5 card
  • Name
  • Prior math/stats/comp sc coursework
  • Any computer expertise
  • Planned post-grad plans
  • Hopes/fears about this class!
  • Something I should know about you or might find interesting (helps me remember)
  • A Password (make it one you will remember, but not one you also use for anything important. This is for web page access)
computers basic architecture
Computers - Basic Architecture
  • Computers have:
    • Input
    • Output
    • Storage (Memory)
    • Connectivity (can be seen as an IO channel)
some simple binary arithmetic
Some simple binary arithmetic
  • Why Binary?
  • Why Decimal?
    • People count by 10s
      • Because we have ten fingers
  • Computers count by ones
    • Because magnetic storage media can electricity can be easily set to “on” and “off”
    • Or 0 and 1
bits and bytes
Bits and Bytes
  • All of the data, programs, and circuitry are digital or binary in nature, meaning that they are comprised of the elements 0 and 1.
  • This is somewhat different than standard (not digital or HD) radio, television, and vinyl or LP records, which operate on analog methods.
    • Analog electronics means that devices use an electrical signal that has amplitude or magnitude instead of a stream of 0's and 1's.
  • Why binary? Because the storage of information on magnetic media is accomplished by arranging bits of metallic oxide in one of two alignments, corresponding to 0 or 1.
    • This allows for massive numbers of 0s and 1s to be stored in a very small space. This smallest unit of information (a 0 or a 1) is called a bit.
  • Collections of bits can be organized into larger chunks.
    • 4 bits = 1 nibble
    • 8 bits = 2 nibbles = 1 byte
ascii characters
ASCII Characters
  • A single byte, consisting of 8 bits can represent 256 different numbers
    • The largest number represented by n bits is 2n-1
    • Hence 28-1 = 255
    • Including 0, that makes 256 different numbers
  • These 256 numbers have been standardized to the ASCII character set. All PCs use the same number to represent the same character.
  • This will expand with Unicode
what do computers do
What Do Computers Do?
  • Computers add
    • Computers Subtract
      • Which is negative addition
    • Computers multiply
      • Which is adding multiple times
    • Computers Divide
      • Which is negative adding a bunch of times
    • Computers do more complicated things –
      • Square roots, power functions, exponentiation, logarithms
        • All by numeric approximation – which is addition
  • They move around the data that they add.
  • That’s all…
the cpu
The CPU
  • Functions as the arithmetic unit of the computer
  • It operates according to it’s clock cycle
  • A 1.8 GHz computer has a clock that cycles 1.8 billion times per second
binary addition
Binary addition
  • Adding Binary Numbers is Simple
    • 3 Rules
      • 0 + 0 = 0
      • 1 + 0 = 1
      • 1 + 1 = 10 ( = 0 and carry the 1 to the next higher column)
does this look familiar
Does this look familiar
  • Binary Addition is the electrical/electronic application of the “exclusive or” from logic
  • Many numbers that are encountered frequently in computers arise from binary arithmetic
get on the bus
Get on the Bus
  • Computers read data on the “buses” that the CPU has
  • Two Buses of note
    • Data Bus
      • The data read into (or written from) the CPU or memory
    • Address Bus
      • The spot in memory to read from or write to
digital systems
Digital Systems
  • So, in the end, we can see that computers simply move ad add 0’s and 1’s.
  • And out of this, we can build incredibly rich and complex experiences
  • Such as
  • Or…
ad