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Chapter 1 Pages 4-12 Notes and Observations

Chapter 1 Pages 4-12 Notes and Observations

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Chapter 1 Pages 4-12 Notes and Observations

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  1. Chapter 1Pages 4-12Notes and Observations

  2. Anatomy vs. Physiology • Anatomy is the field of science that describes the locations, appearances, and relationships of body parts. • Physiology is the field of science that explains the mechanisms that operate body activities. • Anatomy is all about structure; physiology is all about function

  3. Anatomy • Gross anatomy—study of structures that are visible to the unaided eye • Microanatomy—study of structures on a microscopic level • Histology—Microanatomy that focuses on body tissues • Systematic Anatomy—studies the body structure in a specific system • Regional Anatomy—studies all structures within a region of the body

  4. Integumentary (Skin) Muscular Skeletal Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Body SystemsPage 9

  5. Physiology • Homeostatic Mechanisms—those activities within the body that maintain a steady, stable state (e. g. control of heartbeat, respiration, body temperature) • Energy is a huge focus of the body—it must constantly monitor the amount of energy that it has and how it will manage it to maintain stability

  6. Terminology • Universal, using Latin or Greek • Descriptive language that is precise • Directional terminology is also important • Directional terminology is based upon a universally accepted body position, anatomical position • This position provides orientation

  7. Anatomical Position • Living: • Body is erect • Body is facing observer • Arms at sides • Toes and palms turned forward • Dead: • Body is prone • Body is ventral side up • Arms are lateral • Palms are faced forward • Thumbs are away from the body

  8. Body Planes • Description of body structures is aided by the use of planes • Three main planes: Frontal (coronal)—divides the body into anterior and posterior slices Sagittal—divides the body into left and right slices Transverse—divides the body into superior and inferior slices

  9. Levels of Organization 1. atoms and molecules 2. cell 3. tissues 4. organ 5. organ system 6. organism

  10. Tissues • Groups of similar cells that work together to accomplish complex tasks epithelial—covers, lines, protects nervous—communication, sensory connective—connects and holds body parts together muscle—responsible for all movement

  11. Organ and Organ System • An organ is composed of 1 or more tissues and is capable of carrying out very complicated functions • Organ Systems are composed of groups of organs working together to perform a general function of the body

  12. The Body Plan • Regions—major areas of the body that are structurally distinguishable Head Neck Trunk Upper Appendages Lower Appendages

  13. Head Neck Trunk Face, Cranium Anterior Neck Posterior Neck Thorax Abdomen Pelvis Back Subdivisions of the Regions, Page 11

  14. Body Cavities • Cavities are spaces that contain organs Dorsal cavity (Posterior) Cranial Cavity Vertebral Canal Ventral Cavity (Anterior) Thoracic Abdominopelvic

  15. Thoracic Cavity • Contains 3 smaller cavities: two pleural cavities—spaces between two membranes surrounding each lung pericardial cavity—space between two membranes that surround the heart Mediastinum-The organs of the thoracic cavity that form a septum between the two pleural cavities, includes the heart, thymus, part of the trachea, part of the esophagus, and the major blood vessels of the heart

  16. Abdominopelvic • Single largest cavity in the body • To aid physicians, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into smaller regions using imaginary lines • Abdominal Cavity contains the stomach, small intestine, spleen, liver, pancreas, and most of the large intestine • Pelvic cavity contains the urinary bladder, the bottom segment of the large intestine, and the internal reproductive organs