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Cellular Respiration. ATP Power . Adenosine triphosphate ATP powers almost all cell and body activities. Making ATP in the body. Cellular respiration : process of harvesting energy from sugars GOAL : Take electrons from sugars and use their energy to make ATP. Two steps :

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Presentation Transcript
atp power
ATP Power
  • Adenosine triphosphate
  • ATP powers almost all cell and body activities
making atp in the body
Making ATP in the body
  • Cellular respiration: process of harvesting energy from sugars
  • GOAL: Take electrons from sugars and use their energy to make ATP.
  • Two steps:
    • Glycolysis: anaerobic process that occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell
    • Aerobic respiration: aerobic process that occurs in the mitochondria of a cell; includes electron transport & Krebs Cycle
slide4
High-energy electrons carried by NADH

GLYCOLYSIS

ELECTRONTRANSPORT CHAINAND CHEMIOSMOSIS

KREBSCYCLE

Glucose

Pyruvicacid

Cytoplasmicfluid

Mitochondrion

glycolysis
Glycolysis
  • Location: Cytoplasm
  • Major Reactants:
    • 1 Glucose molecule (C6H12O6)
    • 2 ATPs (for energy)
  • Products:
    • 4 ATPs (energy storing) – only a net yield of 2 ATPs
    • 2 Pyruvate (energy storing)
  • Continues to Krebs Cycle to get remaining energy out of the pyruvate molecules
krebs cycle aerobic
Krebs Cycle (Aerobic)
  • Location: Mitochondrial matrix
  • Pre-reaction: Pyruvate reacts with coenzyme A to form an intermediate compound, acetyl CoA.
  • Reactants:
    • Acetyl CoA
  • Major Products:
    • 6 CO2 molecules (waste product)
    • 8 NADHs (moves on to Electron transport chain to make more ATP)
    • 2FADH2 (moves on to Electron transport chain to make more ATP)
    • 2 ATPs
electron transport chain chemiosmosis aerobic
Electron transport chain & chemiosmosis (Aerobic)
  • Location: Mitochondrial membrane
  • Reactants:
    • High energy electrons from glycolysis
    • NADH from Krebs cycle
    • FADH2 from Krebs cycle
    • O2
  • Products:
    • Up to 32-34 ATPs
    • Water molecule
review
Review –
  • 1 glucose molecule produces up to 38 ATP molecules

Cytoplasmic fluid

Mitochondrion

Electron shuttleacrossmembranes

KREBSCYCLE

GLYCOLYSIS

2AcetylCoA

KREBSCYCLE

ELECTRONTRANSPORT CHAINAND CHEMIOSMOSIS

2Pyruvicacid

Glucose

by substrate-levelphosphorylation

used for shuttling electronsfrom NADH made in glycolysis

by substrate-levelphosphorylation

by chemiosmoticphosphorylation

Maximum per glucose:

anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic Respiration
  • AKA: Fermentation
  • If oxygen is not available, cells can use glycolysis alone to produce small amounts of ATP.
  • Two methods of fermentation:
    • Lactic acid fermentation:
      • Enzymes convert pyruvate into lactic acid.
      • Very little ATP is produced.
      • Skeletal muscles produce lactic acid when oxygen supply is low. Lactic acid builds up to make muscles sore.
    • Alcohol fermentation:
      • Occurs in yeast and bacteria
      • Converts pyruvate into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide
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