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Argumentation. Two Parts to Argumentation. Truth Seeking: what evidence exists? Persuasion: making a claim on an issue Argumentation Not polarizing Not just two-sided Argumentation: both process and product Process: finding evidence; considering multiple points of view

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two parts to argumentation
Two Parts to Argumentation
  • Truth Seeking: what evidence exists?
  • Persuasion: making a claim on an issue
  • Argumentation
    • Not polarizing
    • Not just two-sided
  • Argumentation: both process and product
    • Process: finding evidence; considering multiple points of view
    • Product: person’s contribution to the discussion (conversation, paper, speech)
stages of growth in argumenation
Stages of Growth in Argumenation
  • Personal opinion: passionate; little evidence given
  • Structured claim: evidence is offered
  • Attention to truth-seeking: listening to other viewpoints
  • Articulate unstated assumptions behind the argument
  • Link argument to values and beliefs of the audience
creating the frame
Creating the Frame
  • Create a question: focuses the argument and the reasons
    • Can be yes/no or open-ended
    • Single issue can be set up multiple ways
  • State the claim: one-sentence answer to the issue
  • Articulate reasons (premise)
    • Use words like because, therefore, so, consequently, and thus
    • Connects to the end of the claim

See examples on page 382

Do activity on page 383

unstated assumptions
Unstated Assumptions

The family was justified in killing the starlings because starlings are pests.

What is the unstated assumption above?

The arguer decides whether the audience will accept the assumption. Sometimes the arguer is right, and sometimes the arguer is wrong!

Do exercise on page 384

types of evidence
Types of Evidence
  • Factual Data
  • Examples
    • Can use personal examples
    • Inform audience when using a hypothetical example
  • Summarize research: ex. Summarize a study that was done
  • Statistics: numbers
  • Testimony
  • Sub-arguments: chain of points, analogy, hypothesis
evaluating evidence
Evaluating Evidence
  • Sufficency:
      • Is there enough?
  • Typicality:
      • Is it ordinary or unusual?
  • Accuracy:
      • Is it the best or most recent information?
  • Relevance:
      • Does it support the claim?
objections
Objections

Always anticipate what the opposition may say and plan for it in your writing!

Two options:

  • Rebuttal: offer evidence that discredits
  • Concession:
    • Use if objection is strong
    • Shift back to a stronger area
ethos and pathos
Ethos and Pathos
  • Logos (logic) dealt with
  • Ethos (ethics)
    • Citations
    • Open to alternatives
    • Connect to audience, even opponents
  • Pathos (emotional appeal)
    • Vivid language
    • Strong examples
    • Appeal to audiences values
fallacies 396 397
Fallacies (396-397)
  • Post hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (“after this, Therefore Because of This”): order of events doesn’t mean causation
  • Hasty Generalization
  • False Analogy
  • Either/Or
  • Ad Hominem (“Against the Person”)
  • Appeals to False Authority or Bandwagon
  • Non Sequitir (“It Does Not Follow”): no connection between claim and reason
  • Circular Reasoning
  • Red Herring
  • Slippery Slope