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System for Motor Control in a Solar Powered Electric Race Car PowerPoint Presentation
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System for Motor Control in a Solar Powered Electric Race Car

System for Motor Control in a Solar Powered Electric Race Car

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System for Motor Control in a Solar Powered Electric Race Car

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  1. System for Motor Control in a Solar Powered Electric Race Car Jay Oatts Duncan Thompson PavelRybakov Alex Jenkins Ed Kfir Monday November 1, 2010 Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  2. Project Overview • Design motor controlling system for solar-powered race car to participate in 2011 World Solar Challenge in Australia • Modular design for efficient portability to solar racer and integration with full electronics system • Expected cost of replication for Solar Jackets is approximately $550 Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  3. Technical Objectives • Design test bench and implement safety mechanisms • Test functionality of motor controller and motor (donated items) • Operate motor controller via single-board computer program and discrete controls • Output vital data from motor controller to driver via LCD screen Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  4. Current Status • Test bench construction complete • Motor controller and motor functional (only one of each) • Operation in discrete (human interface) and serial (computer interface) confirmed • Safety systems installed • Semi-full systems test passed (SBC and LCD excluded) Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  5. Latest Test Run Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  6. Modular Design Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  7. Modular Design • Power Source Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  8. Modular Design • Power Source • Motor Controller Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  9. Modular Design • Power Source • Motor Controller • Motor Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  10. Modular Design • Power Source • Motor Controller • Motor • Discrete Controls Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  11. Modular Design • Power Source • Motor Controller • Motor • Discrete Controls • SBC Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  12. Modular Design • Power Source • Motor Controller • Motor • Discrete Controls • SBC • Driver Display Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  13. Power Source - Batteries • 8 x 12V series connection • 96V effective • Wiring – AWG-4 Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  14. Power Source - Fuse • 250V / 150A rated fuse and holder Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  15. Power Source – Main Power Cutoff • 48V/96V blowout • 1000A • Keyed access Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  16. Power Source – Power Relay • Contactor • 900V / 500A (cont.) / 2000A (cutoff) • Power Resistor • 100Ω/200W Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  17. Motor Controller - Connections • Battery Terminals Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  18. Motor Controller - Connections • Battery Terminals • Motor 3-Phase Power Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  19. Motor Controller - Connections • Battery Terminals • Motor 3-Phase Power • Motor Sense (15 pin) Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  20. Motor Controller - Connections • Battery Terminals • Motor 3-Phase Power • Motor Sense (15 pin) • Discrete/Serial Controls (25 pin) Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  21. Motor Controller - Connections • Battery Terminals • Motor 3-Phase Power • Motor Sense (15 pin) • Discrete/Serial Controls (25 pin) • Fan Power Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  22. Motor Controller - Connections • Battery Terminals • Motor 3-Phase Power • Motor Sense (15 pin) • Discrete/Serial Controls (25 pin) • Fan Power • Fans (2 x 24V) Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  23. Motor Controller - Communication • Split from 25 pin controls cable • Serial-USB for computer • Hyperterminal program • Serial syntax • Commands (same as discrete + program/operate mode + hard reset) • XX! • Queries • XX? (RAM) • XX> (EEPROM) • Assignments • XX=# (RAM) • XX<# (EEPROM) • (*Must be in programming mode) Note: XX implies register hexadecimal number for RAM/EEPROM or command number. # implies decimal value to be assigned to the register Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  24. Motor • 3 phase cables connect to attract rotating permanent magnet in sequence • Controller sends power to phases relative to desired speed/torque (commutator) • Motor sense cable sends information back to controller (Hall effect sensors, temp sensor, connection sense) • Mount for support/stability Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  25. Discrete Controls - Switches • Enable • Master controller enable (must be on to operate) Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  26. Discrete Controls - Switches • Enable • Master controller enable (must be on to operate) • Throttle Enable • Phase current enable (drops to zero when disabled, but regen still operational) Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  27. Discrete Controls - Switches • Enable • Master controller enable (must be on to operate) • Throttle Enable • Phase current enable (drops to zero when disabled, but regen still operational) • Direction Switch • Forward or Reverse Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  28. Discrete Controls – Output Signals • Brake (Regen) Light • Activates anytime the controller is regenerating power back to batteries (Phase current negative) Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  29. Discrete Controls – Output Signals • Brake (Regen) Light • Activates anytime the controller is regenerating power back to batteries (Phase current negative) • Reverse Light • Activates when reverse switch set (as long as motor is currently rotating forward) Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  30. Discrete Controls – Output Signals • Brake (Regen) Light • Activates anytime the controller is regenerating power back to batteries (Phase current negative) • Reverse Light • Activates when reverse switch set (as long as motor is currently rotating forward) • Speed Pulse • State change every two consecutive commutations Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  31. Discrete Controls – Pedals • Throttle • Analog input (potentiometer for now) to scale throttle from 0-5V Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  32. Discrete Controls – Pedals • Throttle • Analog input (potentiometer for now) to scale throttle from 0-5V • Regenerative Braking • Same as throttle, but scales amount of regeneration to batteries from motor Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  33. Discrete Controls – Pedals • Throttle • Analog input (potentiometer for now) to scale throttle from 0-5V • Regenerative Braking • Same as throttle, but scales amount of regeneration to batteries from motor • Air Gap • Mentioned in manual, but ultimately unused Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  34. Single Board Computer (SBC) • Serial interface cable connects to serial port in place of laptop Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  35. Single Board Computer (SBC) • Serial interface cable connects to serial port in place of laptop • 1x 10/100 Ethernet, 2x USB2.0 Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  36. Single Board Computer (SBC) • Serial interface cable connects to serial port in place of laptop • 1x 10/100 Ethernet, 2x USB2.0 • Boots Linux in about 3 seconds • RS-485 multi-drop network for communication with solar cell switching power supplies • Connects and operates LCD driver display Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  37. Driver Display • Potential display choice • Connects to SBC on either SPI or I2C bus • LED backlighting • Many colors available • Affordable for basic testing • Nothing purchased yet and open to feedback F R Cruise Control Speed: 55 mph @ 1200 RPM Regen: 0% 100% Power Supply: 96.3V / 20.2A Motor Temp: 30°C Controller Temp: 25°C Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  38. Acceptance Testing • Confirmation of functional motor controller • Connect to 60V power supply at minimal current, measure input/output pin voltages (+5V for signal lines, +24V for fan) • Full controls and motor connection • Communication with motor controller, motor rotation, discrete controls operational, fans connected, 870dHz measured rotation (1740 RPM estimated) • Battery array connection (full power operation) • Torque vs. speed control testing, safety systems operational, 96.3V measured battery power, 200mA full speed (no-load) current draw Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  39. Current Issues - Motor • Motor pole count • Total number of poles not listed in any manuals • Needed to confirm speed calculation from motor controller • Torque (phase current) control spiking • Without load, current spikes at turn on to reach max speed and then levels out to nominal current draw • Need to load motor to further test current range Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  40. Current Issues - Controls • Regenerative braking lights • Signal every time negative current is recognized by the motor controller (regeneration) • Not an effective sign of actually braking (light can trigger without regen being applied) • Throttle/Regenpotentiometers (sensitivity) • Current max measured at about half of potentiometer max range • Motor controller registers can modify range and deadband settings to optimize • LCD screen choice • Need to decide on LCD screen so information can be viewed continuously from program Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  41. Upcoming Milestones • Basic single board computer I/O • November 5, 2010 • Basic functional LCD user interface • November 12, 2010 • System logic programmed • November 19, 2010 • Automatic programmed motor control • December 1, 2010 Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  42. Discussion • Regenerative braking lights • Torque control spiking (need to load test) • Throttle/Regen potentiometers (sensitivity) • LCD screen decision • Motor pole count Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  43. Motor Controller Interface Cable Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  44. Detailed Full System Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3

  45. Cost Analysis Solar Jackets – Motor Controller Group ECE 4007L01 – ws3