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Speech Fundamentals. ENC 3254 Speaking & Writing for Engineers. Engineers are poor communicators. True or False?. Presentations are expensive. Consider whether it is really necessary. Cost in salaries of audience. Cost in time for presentation. Cost in time to prepare presentation.

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speech fundamentals

Speech Fundamentals

ENC 3254

Speaking & Writing for

Engineers

slide3

Presentations are expensive. Consider whether it is really necessary.

Cost in salaries of audience

Cost in time for presentation

Cost in time to prepare presentation

presentations have several advantages over documents

Work can come alive for audience

Work

C

A

Presenter can read audience and react

B

D

C

?

!

?

Presenter receives

instant reaction

!

Presentations have several advantages over documents
presentations also have disadvantages

?

?

?

Speaker has limited

chance to catch errors

audience

Audience cannot

reread text

has one

chance

to hear

Audience cannot look

up background material

Presentations also have disadvantages
what are the most common public speaking challenges
What are the most common public speaking challenges?
  • Anxiety
  • Lack of preparation time
  • Not knowing your purpose
  • Not knowing the audience
communication apprehension
Communication Apprehension
  • The Book of Listsranks fear of public speaking as the #1 fear, even ahead of death, disease, and nuclear war.
  • A 2001 Gallup Poll found that public speaking was second only to a fear of snakes.
what are the causes of ca
What are the causes of CA?
  • Fear of Embarrassment
  • Fear of Failure
  • Fear of Rejection
overcoming or controlling ca
Overcoming or Controlling CA
  • Know your environment
  • Relax
  • Breathe
  • Use extras wisely
  • Keep your focus on the material
  • Know your material & practice
  • Your audience is on your side
presentations can be viewed from three stylistic perspectives
Presentations can be viewed from three stylistic perspectives

Structure and

Speech

Visual Aids

Delivery

Archives, Cal-Tech

slide11

Structure and

Speech

Delivery

Archives, Cal-Tech

Visual Aids

slide13

Who are they?

What do they know?

Why are they here?

What biases do they have?

Begin preparing a scientific presentation

by analyzing your constraints

audience

to inform

to persuade

to inspire

to teach

formality

size

time

purpose

occasion

there are 2 messages in any speech
There are 2 messages in any speech:

1. The one you send

2. The one the audience receives

challenge audiences can be poor listeners
Challenge:Audiences can be Poor Listeners
  • Reactive to trigger words or topics
  • Listen faster than you can speak
  • Prefer info similar to their beliefs
  • Retain very little
goal be compelling
Goal: Be Compelling
  • Know Purpose of Speech
  • Know Audience
  • Show Value of Message
  • Build Rapport
types of speeches
Types of Speeches
  • Informative:

Conferences, technical updates, new product introductions

  • Instructive:

Training, coaching, orientation

  • Persuasive:

Client presentations, in-house proposals

types of audiences demographics
Types of Audiences: Demographics
  • Technical or Non-technical
  • Managerial or Staff
  • Educational Level
  • Age
types of audiences situational psychological
Types of Audiences: Situational & Psychological
  • Occasion
  • Size of Room & Group
  • Roles & Motives
  • Culture
  • Feelings about you or your topic
goal present a clear message
Goal: Present a clear message
  • Speech Overview/Preview

Prepares Audience

  • Use Connectives/Transitions

Signals Topic Change

  • Review Points

Enhances Audience Retention

as with documents the structure of presentations should have clear beginnings middles and ends
As with documents, the structure of presentations should have clear beginnings, middles, and ends

B

e

g

i

n

n

i

n

g

E

n

d

i

n

g

Middle

beginnings prepare the audience for the work to be presented

Shows importance

Defines work

Work = A + B

Maps presentation

Gives background

B

C

A

D

Beginnings prepare the audiencefor the work to be presented
speech organization
Speech Organization
  • Introduction
    • Attention grabber
    • thesis/central idea
    • relation statement
    • qualifications (if necessary)
    • preview/forecast
the middle presents the work in a logical order
The middle presents the workin a logical order

pre-combustion methods

combustion

methods

post-combustion

methods

speech organization organizational patterns
Speech Organization-Organizational Patterns
  • Body
    • Topical
    • Triad
    • Chronological
    • Problem/Cause/Solution
    • MMS
monroe s motivated sequence
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
  • Step 1--Attention
  • Step 2-Need
  • Step 3-Satisfaction
  • Step 4-Visualization
  • Step 5-Action
in the middle make smooth transitions between major points

pre-combustion

methods

combustion

methods

combustion

methods

post-combustion

methods

In the middle, make smooth transitions between major points
the ending should summarize main points and place those results in the context of the big picture

point 5

point 6

point 7

point 8

point 1

point 2

point 3

point 4

point 1

point 7

Summary

The ending should summarize main points and place those results in the context of the big picture

Big Picture

speech organization1
Speech Organization
  • Conclusion
    • forewarn audience of ending
    • summarize your main points
    • remind audience of desired response
    • end in an upbeat manner
slide30

Structure and

Speech

Visual Aids

Delivery

Archives, Cal-Tech

delivery is the speaker s interaction with the audience

AIP

Cal-Tech

Voice

Cal-Tech

Movement

Stage Presence

Delivery is the speaker’s interaction with the audience
goal be captivating memorable
Goal: Be Captivating & Memorable
  • Delivery

How You Give the Speech

  • Verbal Techniques

Volume, Rate, Emphasis, Vocal Variety, Articulation

  • Non-verbal Techniques

Personal Appearance, Gestures, Eye Contact

  • Language

Enhances Understanding

delivery functions
Accent & Emphasis

Complement

Reinforce

Regulate/Control

Contradict

Substitute

Delivery Functions
there are several choices speech delivery
There are several choices speech delivery

Memorizing the Speech

+ allows eye contact

- difficult for long speeches

- room for precision errors

- no room for improvising

Reading From a Text

+ ensures precision

- does not sound natural

- no room for improvising

- hinders eye contact

Speaking Extemporaneously

+ insures organization

+ allows eye contact

+ allows improvising

- some room for error

Winging It

+ sounds natural

- has much room for error

delivery essentials 65 of total message
Delivery Essentials~65% of total message
  • Eye Contact and Facial Expression
    • 50% of nonverbal message
  • Body Movement--body language
    • hand gestures, walking, podium use
  • Vocalics or Paralanguage
    • 30% of nonverbal message
  • Distracting Mannerisms
engineers can be excellent communicators too
Engineers can be excellent communicators too!

Structure and

Speech

Visual Aids

Delivery

Archives, Cal-Tech

slide37
“The ability to communicate is everything.”

--Lee Iacocca

Former CEO, Chrysler Corporation