Pronouns • a pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun or another pronoun. • Pronouns such as we, I , she, them, and it are called PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Person – 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person Case – Subject or Nominative Case Object Case Possessive Case Number – Singular (1) or Plural
Personal Pronouns have a variety of forms to indicate person, numbers and cases. Person: 1st person: I, me, we, us 2nd person: you 3rd person: he, she, it, they, him, her, them
Personal Pronouns: Number Number: Singular or Plural Singular: I, me, you, he, him, she, her, it Plural: We, us, you, they, them
Personal Pronouns: Cases Subject or Nominative Case: I, you, he, she, it , we, they Subject pronouns are used as the subject of the sentence, or as the predicate pronoun. Ex. You and I both think we should go on to Mars. The greatest astronauts were they.
Subject Case Pronouns • NOMINATIVE CASE • Used as the subject of the sentence. • Ex. They are going home. • He and I went to the game. • We love to win!
SUBJECT CASE PRONOUNS • (Nominative Case) • Used as the predicate pronoun in a • sentence. Predicate pronouns • immediately follow linking verbs. • (am, is, are, was, were, has been, have • been, can be, will be, could be, should • be) and identifies the subject. • Ex. The fans werehe and I. • The greatest astronauts were they.
1. Some big fans of space exploration are Sam and (I, me). 2. (We, Us) learned that in April 1970, the Apollo 13 astronauts almost didn’t make it back to Earth. 3. (They, Them) never did land on the moon.
4. Two hundred thousand miles from home, (they, them) heard an explosion. 5. Jim Lovell was the mission commander; it was (he, him) who radioed the message “Houston, we’ve had a problem.” 6. Then (he, him) Jack, Swigert, and Fred Haise were forced to abandon the main ship for the lunar module.
7. The tiny module was designed to keep two people alive for just two days, but (they, them) were four days from Earth. 8. (They, Them) finally splashed down in the Pacific Ocean four days later, having overcome crisis after crisis.
9. (We, Us) watched the movie about their dangerous journey. 10. It was (they, them) who won our respect and admiration.
Personal Pronouns: Cases Object or Objective Case: me, you, him, her, it, us, them An object pronoun is used as a direct object, indirect object, or an object of the preposition. Ex. Bad storms scare me. (direct object) I told him the story. (indirect object) The storm is coming straight at us.(obj. of prep.)
Object Case Pronouns follow action verbs or prepositions. Ex. Bob hitme. He gave the present to her.
1. Hurricane Floyd ravaged the East Coast in 1999; the extent of the damage horrified my friends and (I, me). 2. My brother and (I, me) read that Floyd was 600 miles across and had winds of 155 miles an hour. 3. Geral Keeth is a U.S. sailor; the hurricane gave (he, him) the scare of his life.
4. “The bad weather started pounding (we, us) Tuesday night,” he wrote. 5. “(We, Us) launched our life raft in …55-foot seas with 60-knot winds.” 6. The raft accidentally left (he, him) and two others behind. 7. (They, Them) had only life jackets and an emergency locator beacon.
8. “I could hear each wave from behind (I, me) like a freight train coming.” 9. Then a helicopter rescued (they, them). 10. “Rescue swimmer Shad Hernandez put a harness on each of (we, us) and (we, us) were hauled into the helicopter.
Personal Pronouns : Cases Possessive Case Possessive pronouns show ownership. Examples: my, mine, our, ours, yours, your, his, hers, theirs Possessive Pronouns NEVER have an Apostrophe!!
Caves are one fascinating element of this natural world of (ours, our’s). • Caves can be formed by the sea, lava, glaciers, or the wearing away of underground rock; depending on (their, they’re) origins, caves have different characteristics. • Is exploring a cave (you’re, your) idea of fun?
The exploration of caves has (it’s, its) own name – (it’s, its) called spelunking. • If (you’re, your) thinking of becoming a spelunker, it’s important to learn the proper safety techniques. • (It’s, Its) not dangerous to explore a cave if you follow the safety rules and use good judgment.
If people don’t pay attention in a cave, (their, they’re) more likely to fall down or get lost. • Rescuing an injured person from a cave can be quite difficult, especially if (its, it’s) passageways are narrow and crooked. • You can sometimes find (you’re, your) way out of a cave by following underground water downstream to the mouth of the cave.
10. Many caves have strong echoes; any shout you hear could be (your’s, yours)!
You are to write 10 sentences. - 2 sentences with subject pronoun as the subject - 2 sentences with subject pronoun as the predicate pronoun -2 sentences with object pronoun as the object of a preposition - 2 sentences with object pronoun as the object of an action verb - 2 sentences with possessive pronouns
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns Reflexive pronoun • ends in self or selves • refers back to the subject and directs the action of the verb back to the subject. • Reflexive pronouns are REQUIRED for the meaning of a sentence.
Reflexive • Example The Carson family tried to lift themselves out of poverty. Ben Carson dedicated himself to becoming a doctor.
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns Intensive Pronouns • Ends in self or selves • Emphasizes a noun or another pronoun within the same sentence. • NOT NECESSARY to the meaning of the sentence.
Intensive Example • You yourself have overcome many hardships. • Dr. Carson himself has survived great poverty.
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns • Have you ever asked yourself how you might deal with a disability? • Basketball player Mahmoud Adul-Rauf has found the strength within himself to succeed, in spite of a disorder. • He suffers from Tourette’s syndrome, a nerve disease that causes him to twitch and shout in spite of himself.
Reflexive and Intensive • A star with the NBA’s Denver Nuggets in the mid -1990’s, Adul inspired many people who have struggled themselves with disabilities. • People with this condition sometimes isolate themselves from others because the disorder causes such embarrassment.
Reflexive and Intensive • Abdul believes that the disorder itself has made him into a better person and athlete. • It has caused him to push himself and practice harder. • He dedicated himself to overcoming the condition and becoming the best basketball player he could be.
Reflexive and Intensive • The player’s faith and dedication are qualities we ourselves can admire and try to imitate. • I myself have seen Adul play many times on television.