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Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

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Skeletal system part 2 the axial skeleton

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  1. Skeletal systempart 2the axial skeleton Honors Anatomy & Physiology

  2. Essential Question • What is the main contribution the axial skeleton makes to homeostasis?

  3. Divisions of the Skeleton • AXIAL SKELETON • Skull • Cranium • Face • Hyoid • Auditory Ossicles • Vertebral Column • Thorax • APPENDICULAR SKELETON: • Pectoral Girdle • Upper Limbs • Pelvic Girdle • Lower Limbs

  4. Types of Bone • bones fall into 1 of 5 main types based on shape: • Long • Short • Flat • Irregular • Sesamoid

  5. Long Bones • longer than they are wide • may be slightly curved (to absorb stress of weight at more points along the bone i.e.straight bones would fracture more easily) • consist of: • shaft & variable #s of ends • compact bone in diaphysis and spongy bone in epiphysis

  6. Long Bones

  7. Short Bones • somewhat cube-shaped • nearly equal in length as width • consist of: • spongy bone except @ surface

  8. Short Bones

  9. Flat Bones • Composed of: • 2 nearly parallel plates of compact bone enclosing spongy bone inside • Function: • give considerable protection • place for muscle attachment

  10. Flat Bones

  11. Irregular Bones • complex shapes (do not fit in other categories) • vary in amt spongy bone

  12. Sesamoid Bones • develop w/in certain tendons where there is considerable friction, tension, & physical stress • function: protect tendon from excessive wear & tear • vary in # person to person but everyone has 2 patella which develop in quadriceps femoris tendon

  13. Sesamoid Bone

  14. Sutural Bones • classified by location (w/in a suture: a seam between 2 cranial bones) • not everyone has them

  15. Bone Surface Markings • 2 major types: • depressions & openings • form joints or allow passage of vessels & nerves • processes • projections or outgrowths that either help form joints or serve as attachment points for ligaments & tendons

  16. Bone Surface Markings

  17. Bone Surface Markings-2

  18. Axial skeleton

  19. SKULL

  20. Skull • 22 bones in 2 categories: • Cranium • 8 bones that form cranial cavity • 1 frontal bone • 2 parietal bones • 2 temporal bones • 1 occipital bone • 1 sphenoid bone • 1 ethmoid bone

  21. Skull 2. Facial Bones 14 bones that form the face • 2 nasal bones • 2 maxillae • 1 mandible • 2 zygomatic • 2 lacrimal • 2 palantine • 2 inferior nasal conchae • 1 vomer

  22. Skull: Cavities • Cranial Cavity • Nasal Cavity • Orbits • Paranasal Sinuses • Middle & Inner Ear Cavities

  23. Cavities of the Skull

  24. Movable Joints of the Skull • Mandible • Auditory Ossicles

  25. Functions of Cranial Bones • protecting brain • stabilizing position of brain, vessels, & nerves through attachments to the meninges • outer surfaces provide large areas of attachment for muscles that move parts of the head & some for facial expression

  26. Cranial Bones: Frontal Bone • forms: • forehead • upper part of eye socket • most of anterior part of cranial floor • in newborns: rt & lt which fuse shortly after birth

  27. Frontal Bone

  28. Parietal Bones • form greater portion of sides & roof of cranial cavity

  29. Temporal Bones • form inferior, lateral aspects of the cranium & part of the cranial floor • its zygomaticprocessforms the lateral half of the zygomatic arch • mandibularfossa: where condylar process of mandible forms TMJ (temporal mandibular joint)

  30. Temporal Bones

  31. Temporal Bones • external auditory meatus: ear canal • mastoid: posterior & inferior to external auditory meatus, contains “air cells” (mastoiditis: inflammation in air cells)

  32. Temporal Bone: Petrous Portion • base of skull between sphenoid & occipital bones • houses middle & inner ear • Carotid foramen & Jugular foramen

  33. Temporal Bones • internal auditory meatus: passage of Cranial nerves VII (facial n.) and VIII (vestibulocochlear n.) • styloid process: point of attachment for muscles & ligaments of the tongue & neck

  34. Temporal Bone: Internal Surface

  35. Occipital Bone • forms back of head & most of base of skull • foramen magnum: large hole spinal cord passes thru, • occipital condyles: articulate with 1st cervical vertebra (atlas)

  36. Occipital Bone

  37. Sphenoid Bone • middle base of skull • *articulates with all other cranial bones • shape resembles a bat

  38. Sphenoid Bone • sellaturcica: (Turkish saddle) the “seat” of the saddle is the hypophysealfossa: where the pituitary gland sits • optic foramen: between body & lesser wings, cranial nerve II (optic n.) and opthlamic artery pass thru

  39. Sphenoid Bone

  40. Ethmoid Bone • “like a sieve” • midline of anterior part of cranial floor, anterior to sphenoid, posterior to nasal bones • cribiforme plate: forms roof of nasal cavity, the holes of the sieve where olfactory nerves pass from roof of nasal cavity to brain • cristagalla: triangular process which serves as pt of attachment for meninges of brain

  41. Ethmoid Bone

  42. Ethmoid Bone • perpendicular plate: forms superior portion of nasal cavity • superior & middle nasal conchae: (or turbinate) increase vascular & mucous membrane surface area in nasal cavities: aids in sense of smell, warms, filters & moistens air being inhaled. Filters because the turbinates cause air to swirl as a result inhaled particles strike & become trapped in mucus

  43. Ethmoid Bone

  44. “Sometimes when you study anatomy, you start seeing others differently.”

  45. Facial Bones • shape of face changes dramatically during 1st 2 yrs of life: • brain & cranial bones expand • 1st set of teeth erupt • paranasal sinuses enlarge • growth of face stops ~16 years old

  46. Facial Bones • 14 facial bones: • 2 nasal bones • 2 maxillae • 2 zygomatic bones • 1 mandible • 2 lacrimal bones • 2 palatine bones • 2 inferior nasal conchae • 1 vomer

  47. Nasal Bones • form part of the bridge of the nose (rest is cartilage)

  48. Maxillae • = upper jaws • *articulate with every bone in face except the mandible • form part of floor of orbits, parts of nasal cavity, & most of the hard palate (bony roof of mouth) • each one has large maxillary sinus • alveolar process is small arch that contains the alveolar sockets for upper set of teeth

  49. Maxillae