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Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition. Chapter 11 Common Administrative Tasks. Objectives. Set up, manage, and print to printers on a Linux system Understand the purpose of log files and how they are administered

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Linux guide to linux certification second edition

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition

Chapter 11

Common Administrative Tasks


Objectives
Objectives

  • Set up, manage, and print to printers on a Linux system

  • Understand the purpose of log files and how they are administered

  • Create, modify, manage, and delete user and group accounts using command-line and graphical utilities

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Printer administration the common unix printing system
Printer Administration: The Common UNIX Printing System

  • Common Unix Printing System (CUPS): Most common printing system used on Linux

  • Print job: Set of information sent to a printer

    • File, set of files, output of a command

  • lp command: Sends a print job to a printer

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Printer administration the common unix printing system continued
Printer Administration: The Common UNIX Printing System (continued)

  • cups daemon (cupsd): Responsible for printing in CUPS printing system

  • Print job ID: Print job’s unique identifier

  • Print queue: Directory holding print jobs waiting to be printed

    • Typically /var/spool/cups

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Printer administration the common unix printing system continued1
Printer Administration: The Common UNIX Printing System (continued)

  • Printer can accept or reject request to print

    • If rejected, CUPS gives an error message

  • Spooling or queuing: Accepting print jobs into a print queue

  • Printing: Sending print jobs from print queue to a printer

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Printer administration the common unix printing system continued2
Printer Administration: The Common UNIX Printing System (continued)

  • lpstat command: With –t (total) option, lists all printers and their status

  • accept, reject, enable, and disable commands: Manipulate status of a printer

    • For enable, must specify full path enable command (/usr/bin/enable)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Printer administration the common unix printing system continued3
Printer Administration: The Common UNIX Printing System (continued)

Figure 11-1: The print process

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Managing print jobs
Managing Print Jobs (continued)

  • lp –d command: Print to a specified printer

    • If –d option omitted, prints to default printer

  • lpoptions –d command: Set default printer

  • Users can set own default printer

    • Add to .lpoptions file in home directory

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Managing print jobs continued
Managing Print Jobs (continued) (continued)

  • lp command accepts information from stdin

  • lpstat command can list print jobs in queue for a printer

  • cancel command: Remove print jobs from print queue

  • lpadmin command: Perform printer administration

    • e.g., restrict who can print to specific printers

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Managing print jobs continued1
Managing Print Jobs (continued) (continued)

Table 11-1: Common options to the lp command

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Managing print jobs continued2
Managing Print Jobs (continued) (continued)

Table 11-2: Common options to the lpstat command

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


The lpd printing system
The LPD Printing System (continued)

  • Line Printer Daemon (LPD): Printing system used on older Linux systems

  • lpr command: Create print jobs in print queue

  • lpc command: View status of printers

  • lpq command: View print jobs in print queue

  • lprm command: Remove print jobs

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Configuring printers
Configuring Printers (continued)

  • /etc/cups/cupsd.conf: Contains cupsd settings

  • /etc/cups/printers.conf: Contains each printer’s configuration information

  • Printer Configuration tool: Used to configure printers

    • e.g., Add new printers

    • Configures queue, not printer

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Configuring printers continued
Configuring Printers (continued) (continued)

Figure 11-2: The Printer Configuration tool

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Configuring printers continued1
Configuring Printers (continued) (continued)

Figure 11-3: Specifying the name of a new printer

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Configuring printers continued2
Configuring Printers (continued) (continued)

Figure 11-5: Different queue types available for a new printer

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Configuring printers continued3
Configuring Printers (continued) (continued)

  • For local printers, must choose printer port

    • Such as /dev/lp0

  • For remote printers, specify name or IP address of remote server, printer name, or printer port

  • Enable sharing as needed

    • CUPS can automatically search for other shared CUPS printers

      • Allow remote computers to print using the LPD protocol

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Configuring printers continued4
Configuring Printers (continued) (continued)

Figure 11-6: Selecting the printer model for a new printer

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Configuring printers continued5
Configuring Printers (continued) (continued)

Figure 11-7: Completing the creation of a new printer

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Configuring printers continued6
Configuring Printers (continued) (continued)

Figure 11-8: View a configured printer

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Configuring printers continued7
Configuring Printers (continued) (continued)

Figure 11-9: Sharing a printer to network users

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Configuring printers continued8
Configuring Printers (continued) (continued)

Figure 11-10: Specifying shared printer options

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Log file administration
Log File Administration (continued)

  • Log file: File containing system information

  • /var/log: Contains most log files

    • Many programs store log files in subdirectories

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Log file administration continued
Log File Administration (continued) (continued)

Table 11-3: Common Linux log files found in /var/log

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


The system log daemon
The System Log Daemon (continued)

  • System log daemon (syslogd): Logs system events

    • Uses /etc/syslog.conf file

      • Entries indicate what information to write to what log file

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


The system log daemon continued
The System Log Daemon (continued) (continued)

  • Facility: Area of system that information is gathered from

  • Priority: Importance of system information

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


The system log daemon continued1
The System Log Daemon (continued) (continued)

Table 11-4: Facilities used by the System Log Daemon

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


The system log daemon continued2
The System Log Daemon (continued) (continued)

Table 11-5: Priorities used by the log daemon

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Managing log files
Managing Log Files (continued)

  • Log files can take up unnecessary space

    • Clear contents occasionally

      • Print copy for records

      • Use > redirection symbol

  • Do not remove log files

    • Permissions and ownership will be removed

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Managing log files continued
Managing Log Files (continued) (continued)

  • logrotate command: Back up and clear log files

  • /etc/logrotate.conf: Used by logrotate utility

    • Specifies rotation parameters for log files

  • Log files compressed after rotation

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Administering users and groups
Administering Users and Groups (continued)

  • Authentication: Verify user’s identity

    • Compare username and password to system database

  • Database containing user account information typically consists of two files:

    • /etc/passwd: User account information

      • Previously stored password information

    • /etc/shadow: Encrypted password information

  • pwconv command: Convert system to use an /etc/shadow file for encrypted password storage

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Administering users and groups continued
Administering Users and Groups (continued) (continued)

  • pwunconv command: Revert back to using an /etc/passwd file only

  • User Identifier (UID): Unique user ID for a user

  • Group Identifier (GID): Primary group ID for each user

  • Primary group: Group owner for all files created by a user

    • Specified in /etc/passwd file

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Administering users and groups continued1
Administering Users and Groups (continued) (continued)

  • General Electric Comprehensive Operating System (GECOS): Field in /etc/passwd file containing user account description

  • Root user usually listed at top of /etc/passwd file

  • /etc/shadow: Password field contains encrypted password

  • /etc/passwd: Password field contains an x (not used)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Administering users and groups continued2
Administering Users and Groups (continued) (continued)

  • Passwords often set to expire at certain intervals

    • Intervals specified in /etc/shadow

  • /etc/group file: Lists all groups and their members

    • Allows users to belong to multiple groups

    • Password field usually contains an x

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Creating user accounts
Creating User Accounts (continued)

  • useradd command: Add new user accounts

  • Most new user information comes from two files:

    • /etc/login.defs:

      • E-mail location, password expiration, minimum password length, range of UIDs and GIDs

    • /etc/default/useradd:

      • default primary group, home directory location, password expiration info, shell, skeleton directory

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Creating user accounts continued
Creating User Accounts (continued) (continued)

  • Skeleton directory: Contains files to copy to new users’ home directories

    • Usually /etc/skel

    • Mostly environment files

  • passwd command: Set a user’s password

    • If no arguments, sets current user’s password

    • User accounts must have password set to log on

    • Root user can change any user’s password

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Creating user accounts continued1
Creating User Accounts (continued) (continued)

Table 11-6: Common options to the useradd command

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Modifying user accounts
Modifying User Accounts (continued)

  • usermod command: Modify user account information

  • chage command: Modify password expiration information

  • Locking an account: Make an account temporarily unusable

    • Alter password information

  • chsh command: Change a valid shell to an invalid shell

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Modifying user accounts continued
Modifying User Accounts (continued) (continued)

Table 11-7: Common options to the usermod command

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Deleting user accounts
Deleting User Accounts (continued)

  • userdel command: Remove user accounts

  • When an account is deleted, files previously owned by the user become owned by a number representing UID of deleted user

    • Next user with that UID will own the files

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Managing groups
Managing Groups (continued)

  • groupadd command: Add a group to the system

  • groupmod command: Modify GID name of a group on the system

  • groupdel command: Remove a group from the system

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Managing groups continued
Managing Groups (continued) (continued)

  • groups command: List groups that a user belongs to

  • id command: List GIDs of groups that a user belongs to

  • newgrp command: Temporarily change user’s primary group

  • Graphical utilities exist to create, modify, and delete user and group accounts

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


Managing groups continued1
Managing Groups (continued) (continued)

Figure 11-11: Configure users and groups with a desktop environment

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e