Statistics • Affects 23.6 million people in the U.S. - Diagnosed: 17.9 million people - Undiagnosed: 5.7 million people • 7th leading cause of death in the U.S (2006)
What is Diabetes? • A chronic disease in which the body can not properly use or make insulin. • Insulin- a hormone made in the pancrease that turns sugar (glucose) into energy for the body to use
What happens without insulin? Lack of insulin Build up of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
Symptoms • Frequent urination • Excessive thirst • Extreme hunger - Cells are starved for energy • Unexplained weight loss - Insulin can not trigger the storage of fat • Fatigue • Delayed wound healing
Type I Diabetes Mellitus • Juvenile diabetes • Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus • Autoimmune disorder • The body destroys the cells that make the insulin • Thus, the body can no longer produce insulin
Type I Diabetes Mellitus • Usually diagnosed in children & young adults ( <30 years old) • 5-10% of diabetics
Type I Diabetes Mellitus • RISK factors: - Genetics - Autoimmune history • Type I is not preventable
Type I Treatment • Glucose monitoring often • Insulin injections • Exercise • Diet • Follow up with doctor • Educate yourself!
Type II Diabetes Mellitus • Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus • Body makes insulin but most cells do not use insulin properly • Insulin resistance • Slowly, the pancreas stops making insulin.
Type II Diabetes Mellitus • 90-95 % of diabetics • RISK factors - Older age - Family history - Obesity - Physical Inactivity - Race and Ethnicity
Type II Risk Factors • Obesity & Inactivity - Studies find a relationship between weight/activity level and Type II - Seeing an increase in Type II diabetes in children
Type II Diabetes Mellitus • Race & Ethnicity - African Americans - Hispanic/Latino Americans - American Indians - Asian Americans - Pacific Islanders
Type II Prevention • If have risk factors, prevent or delay the onset of Type II… - Healthy diet - Moderately intense exercise (walking 2 1/2 hours each week)
Type II Treatment • Goal: Control blood sugar (glucose) - Glucose monitoring often - Oral medicine / Insulin injections - Diet - Exercise / Weight management - Follow up with doctor - Educate yourself!
Diet - Carb Counting • Carbohydrates raise blood glucose levels • Keep track of how many carbs you eat and set a limit for yourself • Limit depends on your activity level and medications • Talk to your doctor!
Diet - Create your plate • Divide plate into 3 sections - Large section - non-starch veggies (spinach, cabbage, mushrooms) - Small section - starch (potatoes, whole grain breads) - Small section - meat (turkey, tuna, lean pork)
Diet - Individualized • No one diet is appropriate for every diabetic person • Work with your doctor to come up with a diet that is right for your situation
Complications of Diabetes • Heart disease • Blindness • Kidney damage • Diabetic neuropathy / nerve damage • Prevent complications by managing your glucose level, diet, and activity!
Diabetes Awareness • November is American Diabetes Month • November 14 is World Diabetes Day For more information: www.cdc.gov www.diabetes.org www.ndep.nih.gov
Websites • http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/consumer/index.htm • http://www.emedicinehealth.com/diabetes/article_em.htm#Diabetes%20Overview • http://www.diabetes.org/