ECOLOGICAL STANDARDS OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT QUALITY. DEVELOPED BY: Research Organization “Ukrainian Scientific Centre of the Ecology of Sea” (RO UkrSCES) of the Ministry of Environment of Ukraine, 2009 SUBMITTED BY: State Ecological Inspection of Ukraine
ECOLOGICAL STANDARDS OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT QUALITY DEVELOPED BY: Research Organization “Ukrainian Scientific Centre of the Ecology of Sea” (RO UkrSCES) of the Ministry of Environment of Ukraine, 2009 SUBMITTED BY: State Ecological Inspection of Ukraine DEVELOPERS: (Borulko V.I., scientific supervisor; Denga Yu.M., executive developer; Pavlenko M.Yu., Zhuravel G.Ya., Khapchenko L.M. – developers)
General Characteristics and Provisions of the ES • The proposed system of ecological standards of marine environment components’ quality (water and bottom sediments) is based on joint harmonized massif of maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs) adopted in Ukraine and in the EU (see Annex 1), as well as on the information about background levels and real ranges of fluctuations of water and sediments’ quality quantitative values in the Black Sea according to the data from environmental monitoring of the Black and Azov Seas carried out by the Ukrainian Scientific Centre of Ecology of Sea (UkrSCES) for many years. Lists of informative parameters used in schemes of water and sediments quality ecological classifications contain main hydrochemical parameters, nutrients and priority pollutants (see Annex 2). At that requirements of the EU Directives, maritime conventions and National Legislation were taken into consideration (see Annex 3). • System of ecological quality standards does not substitute National fishery standards for MPCs currently used in Ukraine for the purposes of ecological control. • Ecological quality standards of marine environment are harmonized with the European standards and enable us to assess marine environment quality according to current international requirements, which is caused by requirements of both National and international programmes. • Methodology of integrated assessment of marine water and bottom sediments quality was developed based on results of marine environmental monitoring. Recommendations on the use of the methodology were issued.
Levels of priorityofparametersofmarine environmentquality • For estimation of marine environment quality (water and bottom sediments) the set of parameters is defined and distributed on two levels of priority (Level 1 - the basic and Level 2 - additional). This or that level of priority is appropriated to parameters depending on their importance for estimation of marine environment quality and management of its condition. • Monitoring of parameters of Level 1 is necessary for check of their conformity to ecological standards for sea waters and bottom sediments. • Parameters of level 2 can be included in level 1 at monitoring of those sea areas in which there is a danger of occurrence of these substances or their presence in essential concentration is established.
Parameters of Level 1 for marine waters • General Parameters(Dissolve oxygen, pH, BOD, TSS, Ammonium nitrogen); • Nutrients (Nitrite, Nitrates, Phosphates, Total N and P); • Trace metals (V, Cd, Co, Cu, As, Mo, Ni, Hg, Pb, Cr, Zn); • Benz(a)pyrene(as indicatorof PAHs); • Total PHs; • Organochlorine pesticides (Lindaneand its isomers, DDT and its metabolites); • Total PCBs.
Parameters of Level 1 for marine bottom sediments • More toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cu, As, Mo, Ni, Sn, Hg, Pb, Cr, Zn); • Individual PAHs; • Total Phenols; • More toxic OPs (Lindaneand its isomers, DDT and its metabolites, Dieldrin, Endrin); • PCBs total.
SYSTEM OF MARINE WATERS QUALITY ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION • The system of marine water quality ecological classification states the correspondence between physical and chemical water quality indices as related to ecological standards required to support optimal functioning of marine ecosystems. The quality system is divided into the following classes: • I. “High” quality • 2. “Good” quality* • 3. “Satisfactory” quality • 4. “Poor” quality • 5. “Bad” quality • 6. ”Critical level” of quality • * hereinafter called ecological standard (ES) • Ecological standard answers the standards of MPC, which provides for satisfactory functioning of marine ecosystems.
The above classification is used to assess hydrochemical parameters except for dissolved oxygen and pH, for which coefficient between quality classes is not used, other criteria are used instead: • ES for dissolved oxygen should be interpreted on the contrary to the comparison with all other parameters (i.e. the higher is concentration, the better is water quality). • As the pH values from 6,5 to 8,5 are usually mandatory requirement for the majority of water organisms irrespective of their relative tolerance of other physical and chemical parameters, those values should be taken for both “high” and “good” quality. That is why all the values outside the above limits could be considered as “inconsistent”.
SYSTEM OF MARINE BOTTOM SEDIMENTS’ QUALITY ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION • Ecological classification of the Black Sea bottom sediments quality determines a range of values for each parameter to be checked for correspondence to the ecological standards. • The difference between groups of parameters for bottom sediments and those for sea water differ in the following way: for two groups of chemicals (metals and organic matter) in sediments the coefficients 5 and 50, respectively, are used • ES (Quality class2) for marine bottom sediments used in the EU countries (in particular, in the Netherlands)P. O. Box 30945, 2515 XP, The Hague, The Netherlands
Ranges of bottom sediments’ quality classes for organic’s pollutants
Dredged Materials’ Quality Assessment for Issuing Permits for Their Dumping into the Sea
METHODOLOGY OF INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF MARINE WATERS AND BOTTOM SEDIMENTS QUALITY • Integrated assessment of marine waters or bottom sediments is done according to results of marine ecological monitoring. The procedure of integrated class setting envisages determination of general quality classes for certain set of parameters according to the results of monitoring, carrying out of calculations to determine limits for each quality class and state the integrated quality class for the studied region of the sea • An example of integrated assessment of marine water quality is presented below: • STAGE 1 – Data Collecting • According to results of marine environmental monitoring a quality class is stated for each parameter in accordance with the system of ecological classification. For example, according to the data from marine environmental monitoring a set of data was received comprising 25 parameters of (P) Level 1:
STAGE 2 – Determination of general (total) value of quality class for the present set of parameters • This stage consists in simple summing up of a number of parameters in each quality class according to ecological classification. • Table I.1 shows the process of summing up values of separate parameters in each class for this data set in accordance with the scheme of marine waters ecological classification.
Procedure of Determinationof Quality Classes’ Limits and Integrated Assessment of Marine Waters Quality in the Studied Area
Graphic presentation of marine water integrated quality • Integrated quality class 3 (Satisfactory), at that, average quality class of marine water on copper, molybdenum and lindane content are estimated as bad (5), on vanadium and benz(a)pyrene content – as poor (4), on ammonium nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, BOD, total nitrogen and phosphorus, mercury and lead content – as good, on pH, nitrite, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, lead and chromium – as high (1). • Similarly integrated assessment of marine bottom sediments’ quality for certain areas is calculated according to the data from environmental monitoring.
Main conclusions • Use of ecological standards of water and sediments’ quality enables us to introduce differentiated approach in management of marine environment state, which takes into account real state of marine environment, current level of anthropogenic pressure, requirements of water-users as to the quality of marine water, as well as capacities of State monitoring system to control parameters of marine environment situation. • The sphere of implementation of ES is assessment of marine environment quality according to results of marine environment monitoring, as well as development of measures to protect and stage-by-stage improve marine water areas’ suffering different levels of anthropogenic pressure.