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Web Services . XML and eBusiness Technology. Introduction. Web services - the next big thing? HTTP has become the network standard XML defines business transactions Business applications execute over the Web

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web services

Web Services

XML and eBusiness Technology

introduction
Introduction
  • Web services - the next big thing?
  • HTTP has become the network standard
  • XML defines business transactions
  • Business applications execute over the Web
  • Distributed computing in a heterogeneous environment – how do you make this happen?
  • Web services, SOAP, Java, and networks
    • Computing in the early 21st century
four paradigms of computing
Four Paradigms of Computing
  • Mainframe
    • The era of “big iron”
  • Client – Server (C/S)
    • Networks and cheap desktop computing
  • Internet Computing (n-tier architecture)
    • Web moves to a computing platform
  • Web services
    • Web moves to a business platform
web services1
Web Services
  • XML, Java, SOAP, and networks
  • Critical for B2Bi
    • Used in “light EAI”
  • Creates a “network application platform”
    • Sun ONE (Open Network Environment)
    • Facilitates “any to any” and “many to many” computing
    • Lets applications and process talk to each other
    • Creates a peer-to-peer computing environment
    • UDDI - directory of services for “client discovery”
service oriented architecture
Service Oriented Architecture
  • Service provider
    • Creates services and publishes to registry
  • Service broker
    • Holds information on how to find and “bind” to a (web) service
  • Service requester
    • Searches the registry, finds services, and “invokes” them after “binding”
service oriented architecture1
Service Oriented Architecture

Service

Provider

Publish

Bind

Service

Broker

Service

Requestor

Find

web services paradigm
Web Services Paradigm
  • Web services are the building block of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)
  • Publish application services
  • Find published services
  • Bind to the service found
  • Invoke the bound service
    • Passing required parameters for proper execution of the selected service
web services protocols
Web Services - Protocols
  • WSDL - description
  • UDDI - discovery
  • SOAP - messaging
  • BPEL – execution
  • ebXML - orchestration
  • HTTP – transport
  • XML – the lingua franca for data
ws process architecture
WS - Process Architecture
  • Services directory
    • WSDL and UDDI
  • Business transaction
    • SOAP request / response
  • SOAP envelope
    • Message and protocol
  • Transaction details
    • ebXML, BPEL
  • Network layer
    • HTTP, HTTPr, HTTPs, SMTP
web services architecture overview
Web Services Architecture Overview
  • Service creation and assembly
    • A visual design environment, possibly UML
  • Service delivery and service integration
    • Messaging interfaces to Internet and network APIs
  • Applications and Web services
    • Web services containers
    • Other legacy applications
  • Application platform
    • Identity and Policy
    • Security and Workflow
    • Collaboration services
standards services architecture
Standards Services Architecture
  • Standards Services Architecture:
  • Leverages key XML technologies
    • XSLT, SOAP, WSDL
  • Smart process
    • ebXML, BPML
    • UDDI
  • Smart Policy
    • LDAP
  • Smart management
    • SNMP and XML routing technologies
network layer
Network Layer
  • Lowest level in the Web services architecture is the conduit for transmission of XML messages
  • HTTP is most common protocol in use
  • HTTPR (R stands for reliable)
  • HTTP carries traffic through firewalls
    • So it is the best “business conduit”
  • HTTPR provides “VAN like” services (re: EDI)
    • “exactly once” delivery of messages, notification, etc.
network layer logical stack
Network Layer – Logical Stack
  • WSIL, WSFL, WSHT
    • Application services and service flow
  • UDDI – Service discovery
  • UDDI – Service publication
  • WSDL – Service description
  • WSIL / SOAP – XML messaging
  • HTTP, HTTPR, SMTP, MQ, IIOP
    • Network layer for messaging
web services stack from webservices org
Layer

Example

Service Negotiation

Trading Partner Agreement

Workflow, Discovery, Registries

UDDI, ebXML registries, IBM WSFL, MS XLANG, BPEL4WS

Service Description Language

WSDL/WSCL

Messaging

SOAP/XML Protocol

Transport Protocols

HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, SMTP

Business Issues

Management, Quality of Service, Security, Open Standards

Web Services Stack from WebServices.org
slide19
SOAP
  • Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
  • Internet protocol for requesting a service
  • Lets loosely coupled entities cooperate
  • Relies on HTTP/HTTPS for transport
  • Picks up where IIOP and CORBA left off
    • Conduit for Remote Method Invocation (RMI)
soap message 3 parts
SOAP Message – 3 Parts
  • The message, envelope, and “channel”
  • SOAP envelope
    • The SOAP packet structure
  • XML body of the message
    • The XML grammar of SOAP request
  • Specification of transport binding
    • The “SOAP” messaging protocol
anatomy of a soap transaction
Anatomy of a SOAP Transaction
  • Client SOAP
    • Request packet (marshal and unmarshal)
  • Transport
    • SOAP running over HTTP (HTTPr / HTTPs)
  • Supplier SOAP
    • Response packet (marshal and unmarshal)
soap request code
SOAP Request Code

POST /path/foo.pl HTTP/1.1

Content-Type: text/xml

SOAPActor: interfaceURI#Add

Content-Length: nnnn

24

53.2

soap response code
SOAP Response Code

200 OK

Content-Type: text/xml

Content-Length: nnnn

77.2

slide25
UDDI
  • Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) http://www.uddi.org/
  • SOAP creates a request for a service
    • But how do you know that the service exists?
    • UDDI is a distributed registry (like DNS system)
    • Service providers post in the UDDI registry
  • UDDI defines a set of SOAP messages that provide the client API for accessing a UDDI registry
uddi services
Publisher API

save_business

save_service

save_binding

save_tModel

delete_business

delete_service

delete_binding

delete_tModel

get_authToken

discard_authToken

Inquiry API

find_business

find_service

find_binding

find_tModel

get_businessDetail

get_serviceDetail

get_bindingDetail

get_tModelDetail

UDDI Services
slide29
WSDL
  • Web Service Description Language (WSDL)
  • WSDL is XML based language that describes the attributes of a Web service
    • Register the service in the UDDI directory
    • Interface is the format of the SOAP request
  • Request / response to execute and receive results of Web service on SOAP envelope
wsdl grammar
WSDL Grammar
  • Message
  • Operation
  • portType
  • Binding
  • Port
  • Service
slide32
WSFL
  • Web Services Flow Language (WSFL)
  • XML based language for defining the composition of web services
  • A flow composition defines how a sequenced execution of web services perform a higher level business process
  • Defines the interaction between a set of business partners executing Web services
preparing a web service
Preparing a Web Service
  • Develop the functionality you want in a service
  • Create the WSDL to describe the service
  • Generate server-side SOAP deployment
  • Publish deployment descriptor in UDDI registry
  • IBM WebSphere Studio Application Developer:
    • WSDL for entry in UDDI registry
    • XML-Java mapping for complex Java objects
    • Deployment descriptor for installing (WS) on a server
using a web service
Using A Web Service
  • Create a Java client to find and call the service
  • Search the UDDI registry for the desired service
  • From WSDL description create SOAP message
  • SOAP message will contain input parameters
  • Send SOAP request message and wait for reply
  • Receive SOAP response with service execution
  • Extract the results of service from the message and process them through a (Java etc.) client
slide37
Java
  • Java is ideal development environment
  • Object oriented with APIs for XML:
  • Java API for XML Messaging (JAXM)
  • Java API for XML Processing (JAXP)
  • Java API for XML Registries (JAXR)
  • Java API for XML - based RPC (JAX-RPC)
security
Security
  • There are several key areas to security:
    • Identification
    • Authentication
    • Authorization
    • Integrity
    • Privacy
    • Auditing
    • Non-repudiation
b2bi web services and ebxml
B2Bi, Web services, and ebXML
  • What is B2Bi?
  • Web services for B2Bi
  • What is ebXML?
  • ebXML initiative
  • ebXML architecture
    • ebXML implementation
    • ebXML partner discovery
    • ebXML transaction messaging
the challenge of b2bi
The Challenge of B2Bi
  • 100,000 companies
  • Middleware doesn’t do it
  • 99,999 factorial connections
  • eMarketplaces didn’t fulfill it
  • Integrating network business process
ebxml initiative
ebXML Initiative
  • ebXML – XML, UDDI, and B2Bi
  • Integrate discovery, binding, and flow
  • UDDI – for discovery and binding
  • ebXML - the eBusiness lexicon of B2Bi
  • Creates a “pattern” for Web service flow
advantages to web services
Advantages to Web Services
  • Flexibility for loose-coupling / late-binding
  • Flexibility in scope: Internet / intranet
    • Limit to enterprise or extend to trading partner
  • Based on HTTP, XML, and SOAP standards
  • Self-describing in WSDL / UDDI registries
  • Aggregate Web services for complex and threaded business process / B2Bi etc.
microsoft net initiative
Microsoft .Net Initiative
  • Microsoft .Net initiative based on SOAP
  • Uses Java tools / visual process design
  • Designed for compatible clients on ends
  • Similar use of XML and SOAP message
  • More similar to COM objects than EJB
sun one
Sun ONE
  • Open Network Environment
  • Web services stack
  • Blend servers and services
  • “Smart Web Services”
  • Networked business process
smart web services architecture
Smart Web Services Architecture
  • Smart delivery
    • Aggregation, presentation and delivery
    • Personalization, content, and contextual sensitivity
  • Smart process
    • Automated workflow management
  • Smart policy
    • Identity, content and roles
  • Smart management
    • Privacy and Security
    • Rights and Administration
    • User management
smart processing overview
Smart Processing Overview
  • Smart management
    • Service registration, service management
    • Listing in UDDI repositories, updating records
  • Smart delivery
    • Protocol awareness and messaging options
    • Flexible integration with network applications
  • Smart processing
    • Management, collaboration, and services delivery
    • Created a distributed network application platform
micro service developer model
Micro Service Developer Model
  • XML document
    • HTTP
    • SOAP
    • JAXM, JAX, RPC
  • Web server
    • JSP
    • Java servlets
  • Application server
    • JDBC
    • JMS
    • J2EE
    • JAXM JAX / RPC
micro web services developer model
Micro Web Services Developer Model
  • From a developer's perspective a micro Web service consists of:
    • Web service interface and one or more service components.
    • The Web service interface manages and manipulates XML messages; it can also be a front end to a legacy application.
  • “Service components” contain the business logic that implements the requested service.
    • Business components frequently interact with external resources and services through a variety of integration services
  • A Web service communicates by passing XML documents over standard Web protocols
    • Using HTTP to pass SOAP, XHTML, and other XML messages
distinguishing business process modeling and management
Distinguishing Business Process Modeling and Management
  • Enterprise business processes 
    • ebPML: e-business Process Modeling Language
  • Executable business processes
    • BPEL: Business Process Execution Language
  • ebXML business processes
    • (a.k.a. collaborations) 
  • Business process activities 
    • BPMI and BPML (and ebPML)
  • Workflows and management
    • BPMS: Business Process Management Systems
pml process modeling languages
PML – Process Modeling Languages
  • BPML
  • IBM WSFL
  • MS XLANG
  • BPML / ebPML
  • BPEL, BPEL4WS
  • UML
slide64
BPML
  • Business Process Modeling Language
  • A method to bind “UML” and Web services
    • The Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) is a meta-language for the modeling of business processes, just as XML is a meta-language for the modeling of business data.
    • BPML provides an abstracted execution model for collaborative & transactional business processes based on the concept of a transactional finite-state machine.
ebpml
ebPML
  • Electronic Business Process Modeling Language
    • http://www.ebpml.org/
  • "Business is complicated. Any solution that doesn't reflect that complexity is not a real solution. ebXML is no more complicated than it has to be in order to implement real-world business collaborations. Conversely, Web services as they are currently defined seem simple precisely because they're not trying to deal with the complexities of real business relationships involving independent enterprises."
    • A grain of wisdom from John Bosak -
key technologies for bpms
Key Technologies for BPMS
  • XML
  • B2B middleware
  • Enterprise Application Integration 
  • Web Services
  • (Legacy Systems behind Web services)
    • Business Process Management Systems
uml 2 0
UML 2.0
  • Unified Modeling Language
  • Looks at the entire picture of a process from the view of actors and use cases
  • State, activity, and collaboration diagrams show interactions of actors
  • UML diagrams can now be saved in XML formats, aiding their use with WS
summary
Summary
  • “Distributed computing” on a network platform
  • Computing for the early 21st Century
  • Uses XML, SOAP, WSDL, UDDI standards
  • Services are self-describing for discovery
  • SOAP interface to messaging interface
  • Java clients for request / response formatting
    • Web services are applications with an IP address
    • Think of it as “hyper-linking” network applications!
resources
Resources
  • http://www.webservices.org/
  • http://xml.apache.org/
  • http://www.uddi.org/
  • http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/webservices/
  • http://java.sun.com/webservices/
  • http://www.xmethods.net/
  • http://www.microsoft.com/net/
self quiz
Self Quiz
  • What are Web services?
  • Why Web services?
  • What is the “protocol stack” ?
  • Write out the WS process flow
  • What things do Web services do well?
  • Where are Web services lacking?
  • What are WS process initiatives about?
vocabulary checklist http whatis com
Architecture

BPEL

BPMI

BPML

ebXML

Java

J2EE

HTTP

HTTPr and HTTPs

.Net

Protocol

Protocol stack

SOA

SOAP

Sun ONE

Transport layer

UDDI

WSDL

WSFL

XML

Vocabulary Checklist - http://whatis.com/
so what is all this xml
So what is all this XML?
  • Just another markup language?
  • No – the “mother of all markups”
  • Technically, XML + HTML = SGML
  • HTML is about presentation
  • XML is about representation
    • Write your own markup languages
    • DTDs and schema define the rules
a song description in html
A Song Description in HTML

Hot Cop

by Jacques Morali, Henri Belolo, and Victor Willis

  • Producer: Jacques Morali

  • Publisher: PolyGram Records

  • Length: 6:20

  • Written: 1978

  • Artist: Village People

a song description in xml
A Song Description in XML

Hot Cop

Jacques Morali

Henri Belolo

Victor Willis

Jacques Morali

PolyGram Records

6:20

1978

Village People

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