Themes: • Louisiana and the World Timeline (pp. 124-125) • Spanish Government Begins; New Laws (pp. 126-130) • Unzaga; Gálvez; Miró (pp. 131-135) • The Acadians (pp. 136-137) • The New Orleans Fires (pp. 138-139) • Carondelet; Economics (pp. 140-141)
Themes: • End of Spanish Louisiana; Louisiana Purchase (pp. 142-146) • Review (p. 147)
I. Spanish Government Begins • Creoles were outraged when they learned that the Spanish had control of the colony. GLEs: 64, 65, 66, 72, 73, 76, 77
A. Antonio de Ulloa • Spain owned the colony, but France continued to run it. • Spanish leaders appointed, Ulloa, a famous scientist and engineer as Louisiana’s first Spanish governor. • Ulloa was weak, distant, a poor manager, and an introvert. • He was ousted from power during the Creole Revolution.
B. French Colonial Government Remains • Rather than making a bold transition, Ulloa chose to forego a formal public ceremony celebrating the transfer of control from France to Spain. • He planned to rule behind the scenes.
C. Unrest in the Colony • Ulloa married a Mestizo woman, so many felt he had violated the Code Noir. • New economic regulations destroyed traditional trade ties. • Inflation was out of control so Ulloa fixed prices. • Merchants did not like being told how much they could charge for goods. • The Superior Council hated him and began plotting to rebel.
D. The Creole Revolution • October 28, 1768—a mob of locals disabled the cannons protecting New Orleans. • Four hundred Creoles and German Coast residents stormed the city, and the Superior Council ordered Ulloa to leave. • Ulloa left, and the French flag flew once again. • The colonists wrote a letter to the French king asking to be taken back by France. The king did not respond. • Spain was going to strike back!
E. The Spanish Return to Louisiana • One year later, a Spanish fleet with 2,000 soldiers arrived in New Orleans to take back control. • The fleet was commanded by General Don Alejandro O’Reilly. • He raised the Spanish flag once again.
F. “Bloody” O’Reilly • Although Irish, O’Reilly served Spain and returned Louisiana to Spanish control after the Creole Revolution. • He executed and imprisoned the revolt’s leaders and served as Louisiana’s governor for a year. • He became known as “Bloody” O’Reilly.
II. New Laws • The Spanish government was more effective than the French government had been.
A. Something Old, Something New • The Spanish officials were specifically trained for their jobs so the Spanish government was more efficient than the French government. • Checks and balances reduced political corruption among officials. • Two lieutenant governors assisted the governor. • The colony was divided into 12 districts with a commandment in each to enforce the law and judge minor cases. • The Spanish government established twelve parishes. Each had a Catholic church and a priest. • The colony’s economic affairs were controlled by the intendant.
B. The Cabildo • The Cabildo replaced the Superior Council and passed laws for the city of New Orleans. • It included members who were appointed (even Creoles), as well as some who paid for their positions. • Each member had specific responsibilities. • If someone was convicted of a crime, he or she could appeal the conviction to the Cabildo.
C. The Legal System Improves • The O’Reilly Code was the name of the new Spanish legal system. • The French customs of Paris was replaced with the O’Reilly Code. • It had various levels of courts and judges who were trained for their positions
D. Changes to the Code Noir • The Spanish Code Noir was similar to the French Code, but it included more rights for slaves. • Freed slaves had the same rights as whites. • Slaves could now testify in court. • Slaves were guaranteed a 30-minute lunch break and two-hour dinner breaks. • Owners could now free slaves without government permission. • Slaves had the right to buy their own freedom by splitting any wages they earned with their owners. • These changes resulted in a steady increase in the number of freed slaves. • Most became small merchants or craftsmen.
E. French Culture Survives • The Creoles tolerated the Spanish and then began to appreciate them. • O’Reilly established language schools, but he did not force Creoles to adopt Spain’s language or customs. • The Creoles could maintain French customs and traditions as long as they did not conflict with the Spanish.
III. Luis de Unzaga • Unzaga replaced O’Reilly as governor of Louisiana. • Unzaga’s calm manner and marriage to a local woman made him very popular. • He allowed English trading vessels, called floating warehouses, to come down the Mississippi River and trade goods—even though it was illegal. This quickly built the economy. GLEs: 64, 65, 66, 72, 73, 74, 76, 78, 80
A. The American Revolution • 13 colonies on the eastern seaboard had been arguing with Great Britain for years. • Fighting erupted • July 4, 1776, colonial delegates approved a document declaring their independence as a separate nation • Spain did not officially support either side, but hoped the colonies would win. • Unzaga then offered the colonies help. • Unzaga provided Oliver Pollock, an American merchant with wheat to aid the colonies.
IV. Bernardo de Gálvez • Became governor after Unzaga. • He was popular with the citizens of Louisiana and secretly helped the colonies as they fought for independence. • Worked secretly with Pollock to provide aid to the colonies • Shipped medicine, clothing, and weapons up the Mississippi to the rebels
A. The Willing Expedition • James Willings, an American, launched a military raid on British West Florida. • Attacked English plantations around Natchez and Baton Rouge • They burned, looted, stole private property, and captured and English warship. • Willing then transported goods to New Orleans to sell • Galvez was caught in the middle • Willings’ action turned West Florida residents to the side of the English due to his brutal treatment
B. Taking Sides • France and Spain decided to join the colonies in their war against England . • Galvez raised an army and marched for Baton Rouge. • Army included Spanish soldiers, Creoles, black militiamen, and Indians • Galvez captured Fort Bute, Fort Richmond, an English regiment at Mobile, and Pensacola. • Treaties ending the Revolutionary war forced England to give: • Independence to Americans • Florida to Spain • Baton Rouge and the rest of West Florida continue to be separate from Louisiana • Spain owned the entire Gulf Coast
V. Esteban Rodríguez Miró • A Louisiana governor fluent in seven languages. • More settlers came to Louisiana during his term than during that of any other Spanish governor.
A. The Colony Grows • The population grew under Spanish control. • It grew because the Spanish wanted to move in large numbers of people to protect the gold and silver mines in Mexico.
B. Land Grants • Spain built colonies population by offering land grants which was a parcel of land promised to each family who would settle in Louisiana. • Government also provided tools, a rooster, two hens, two pigs, and supplies for a year.
C. The Isleños- “Islanders” • Spanish group from the Canary Islands • Settled mostly in areas of St. Bernard, Ascension, and Plaquemines Parishes and made their livings by fishing and trapping
D. Settling Northeast Louisiana • Settled by a few French hunters and their families • They complained that the English and their Indian allies were raiding the area. • Spanish official took action • Miro sent Captain Don Juan Filhiol up the Ouachita River to organize the French families into settlements
E. The Kaintocks • Tensions over the Mississippi grew • Americans frequently traveled down the river to trade in New Orleans. • Most came from Kentucky, the Creoles called all of them Kaintocks. • they came into the city, drank too much, got into fights, and generally caused trouble. • Due to the recent troubles, Miro closed the river to most American trade. • Sometimes they let them through and sometimes they didn’t. • Kaintocks were furious with this inconsistency.
F. The Spanish Conspiracy • Miro was involved • General James Wilkerson, an American and former American Revolution general, was an ambitious and untrustworthy man. • He was forced to resign from the army • Wilkerson moved to Kentucky Territory • He traveled to New Orleans and met secretly with Governor Miro. • He swore allegiance to Spain • Tried to get Kentucky to break away from the United States and join the Spanish territory. • He failed and Kentucky became a US state.
VI. The Acadians • One of the largest group of settlers • French-speaking Catholic colonists who lived in the French Canadian province of Acadia, which is modern-day Nova Scotia. • England acquired Acadia during one of the colonial wars, but the Acadians did not like the English Protestants. • The French and Indian War erupted and the English were afraid the Acadians would help the French, so they were deported. GLEs: 64, 65, 74, 75, 78, 81
A. Le Grand Deŕangement • 1755, the English government called a meeting and forced about 6,000 Acadians aboard a ship. • It was traumatic and life-shattering. • No one wanted the Acadians • People thought they were a burden and were competitors for jobs
B. Acadians Find Refuge in Louisiana • After many year in exile, Spain realized they would help populate the colony. • Spain offered to pay their way to Louisiana. • 1769-1785: perhaps as many as 10,000 Acadians came to the colony • Settled in the prairies of southwest Louisiana and along Bayou Teche
**New Orleans Fires of 1788 and 1794 (Read more about it on page 138) • When a priest knocked over a candle the curtains caught fire. • Since it was Easter, bells were kept quiet so it took longer to notify the fire department. • Because the firemen spoke only French and the officials giving order spoke Spanish, they were unable to communicate effectively. • Due to the size of the fire, it destroyed over 850 buildings, and over 1000 people lost their homes. • To reduce fire hazards, Governor Carondelet ordered builders to use brick for structures over one story tall. • After the second fire, architects and builders copied Spanish styles so most French Quarter architecture is more Spanish than French. GLEs: 65, 73
VII. Francisco Luis Hector, Baron de Carondelet • He was born in France, served in the French military, then joined the Spanish Army. • Although French, he governed Louisiana for Spain. • He established laws under which slaves were treated more humanly. GLEs: 64, 65, 66, 73, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80
A. Boundary Disputes • Spain gained West Florida, but it’s northern boundary was under dispute. • Spain claimed Natchez as part of the territory. • United States argued • Western America threatened to attack New Orleans and secure take the Mississippi River. • American’s were angry because Spain had closed the river again. • Spain knew they would lose a war with the United States and have to give up Louisiana.
B. Treaty of San Lorenzo-Pinckney’s Treaty • Spain avoided war • US got to use the Mississippi River for trade and had the right of deposit in New Orleans for 3 years. • West Florida boundary was changed at 31 degrees north latitude.
C. The Pointe Coupée Slave Revolt • Carondelet felt harsh treatment of slaves could lead to rebellion, so he established laws that treated slave more humanely. • His policy has several effects. • These included: • Slaves challenging their owners’ authority • Work slowdowns • The Pointe Coupee Slave Rebellion-which resulted in the hanging of 23 slaves and 31 floggings so severe that only four survived • Some slave owners then began treating slaves even more harshly than before the new policy • The new policy put slaves under the authority of all whites.
VIII. Economics • Spain was much more successful than France
A. Sugar • Became the largest cash crop in the colony. • Etienne de Bore was a sugarcane grower with a plantation in New Orleans. • His new granulation process made sugarcane a very profitable crop.
B. Perique Tobacco • Became an important cash crop that brought money to the colony.
C. Land Grants • Marquis de Maison Rouge and Baron de Bastrop were given land grants. • Neither man met his quota to bring new settlers in. • Most settlers who did come to the colony were Americans who brought English culture with them.
IX. The End of Spanish Louisiana • During the French Revolution, working-class people rebelled against upper-class aristocrats who ruled France. • During the 10-year revolt thousands were killed. • The King and Queen were beheaded. GLEs: 65, 66, 72, 73, 74, 76, 78
A. Foreign French • Louisiana’s French population grew because of the masses of French fleeing the country to escape the Revolution. • They were called Foreign French • Soon Revolutionary societies sprang up in Louisiana and the Spain feared a revolt. • Governor Carondelet sent in more troops and arrested the rebels. • There was no revolt
B. Napoleon Bonaparte • He became France’s Dictator after the French Revolution. • Dreamt of rebuilding the French empire in America • The only significant colony France had left in North American was Saint-Domingue. • He wanted to turn this colony into a money-making sugarcane plantation. • He needed a place to get food for the plantation slaves and Louisiana was the answer.