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Tribal Minor New Source Review Permitting

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  1. Tribal Minor New Source Review Permitting Kaushal Gupta, Environmental Engineer, Air Permits Section USEPA Region 5 Air & Radiation Division Tribal Minor NSR & Title V Permit Review Training June 11, 2013 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  2. Why do we need permits? • Permitting process makes source do its “homework.” • Permit creates a point of contact and establishes responsible officials on both sides. • Permit sorts out which regulations apply. • Permit tells source what it must do to comply. • Permit tells public that the source is subject. • Increases effectiveness of compliance and enforcement. • Reduces source to a “number” that fits into an overall air quality picture. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  3. Minor NSR Permitting Process U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  4. Start: Geographic factor • Source must be located in Indian country in order to be subject. • EPA’s definition of Indian country for purposes of Tribal minor NSR: • All land within the limits of any Indian reservation under the jurisdiction of the United States Government, notwithstanding the issuance of any patent and including rights-of-way running through the reservation, • All dependent Indian communities within the borders of the United States, whether within the original or subsequently acquired territory thereof and whether within or without the limits of a state, and • All Indian allotments, the Indian titles to which have not been extinguished, including rights-of-way running through the same. (40 C.F.R. 71.2) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  5. Start: Geographic factor • Not subject to Tribal NSR: • Source located in State jurisdiction, but very close to boundary with tribe • Source located in State jurisdiction, but emissions may waft over to tribal land • May be subject to Tribal NSR: • Source located in both tribal and State jurisdiction (may need a permit from each). • Source located in tribal jurisdiction, but received a permit from a State agency. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  6. Is unit or activity exempt? Exempt units and activities: • Mobile sources (Note: mobile ≠ portable) • Ventilating units for comfort that do not exhaust air pollutants into the ambient air from any manufacturing of other industrial processes • Noncommercial food preparation • Consumer use of office equipment and products • Janitorial services and consumer use of janitorial products • Internal combustion engines used for landscaping purposes • Bench scale laboratory activities, except for laboratory fume hoods and vents. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  7. Proposed exempt units May soon be added to list of exempt units: • Emergency generators • Designed solely for purpose of providing electrical power during power outages • Does not include: • Peaking units at electric utilities • Generators at industrial facilities that typically operate at low rates, but are not confined to emergency purposes • Standby generator that is used during time periods when power is available from the utility. • Capacity below 1,000 hp in AA, below 500 in NAA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  8. Proposed exempt units cont’d • Stationary internal combustion engines <50 hp • Furnaces or boilers used for space heating • Uses only gaseous fuel • 10 mmBTU/hr heat input in AA, 5 mmBTU/hr in NAA • Single family residences and residential buildings with four or fewer dwelling units. • Air condition units used for human comfort that do not exhaust air pollutants generated by manufacturing or industrial processes. • Forestry and silvicultural activities. Also: exemption for noncommercial food preparation may be expanded to cover commercial fast food and standalone restaurants. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  9. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  10. Determine Potential to Emit (PTE) • If not exempt due to geography or source category, have to calculate the PTE from affected emissions units. • Emissions unit: a piece of equipment that emit air pollutants at a stationary source. • Affected emissions units are (40 C.F.R. § 49.152(d)): • For a proposed new minor source, all the emissions units. • For a proposed modification, the new, modified and replacement emissions units involved in the modification. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  11. PTE Defined • The highest amounts of pollutants that the source could release into the air based on the equipment design (calculated per pollutant). • May take into account: • Emissions controls • Enforceable limitations on operations (e.g. a previously issued permit) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  12. PTE and Fugitive Emissions • Fugitive emissions: those emissions which could not reasonably pass through a stack, chimney, vent, or other functionally equivalent opening . Examples: • Aerosols • Quarries • Storage piles • Leaks or releases from valves, pumps, compressors, flanges U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  13. Fugitive or Nonfugitive? U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  14. When to include fugitives in PTE calc. • Includes fugitive emissions, to the extent they can be quantified, if the source belongs in one of the 28 source categories list at 40 CFR part 51, Appendix S, paragraph II.A.4(iii) or 52.21(b)(1)(iii). • Examples of listed source categories: • Fossil fuel-fired steam electric plants of more than 250 million Btu/hr heat input • Kraft pulp mills • Portland cement plants • Taconite ore processing plants U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  15. PTE Policy for Emergency Generators • Applies in lieu of approved exemption for emergency generators. • May use default assumption of 500 hours per year instead of 8,760 hours per year. • <500 hours per year may be used when justification can be provided. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  16. PTE Calculation Methods • Examples: • On-site measurement • Vendor design capacity or rated capacity information • Material balance calculations • Emission Factors U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  17. PTE and New Sources • For a new source, calculate the source’s total PTE for each pollutant and see if it meets or exceeds the minor source applicability thresholds. If any threshold is exceeded, source must apply for a permit. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  18. Minor Source Applicability Thresholds U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  19. PTE and Modified Sources • For modifications at existing minor sources, use the allowable-to-allowable test: • Emissions increase = new allowable minus old allowable • For an emissions unit that was previously unpermitted or is being added, new allowable = PTE • For an emissions unit subject to an existing permit, old allowable = allowable limit in the permit. • If emissions increase meets or exceeds threshold, source must apply for permit for the modification. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  20. Exempted Modifications • These modifications are not subject to minor NSR: • Routine maintenance, repair or replacement • Routineness is determined on a case-by-case basis • An increase in the hours of operation or in the production rate that would be allowed under the existing permit • Change in ownership U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  21. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  22. Major, Synthetic Minor, or True Minor? • Source must apply for a major source permit (e.g. PSD permit) if PTE ≥ major source threshold (generally 250 tpy in AA, 100 tpy in NAA) • Source may apply for a minor permit, as a synthetic minor, if PTE ≥ major source threshold, but source can control its actual emissions to below major source threshold • Source must apply for minor source permit, as a true minor, if PTE < major source threshold and ≥ minor source threshold. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  23. Synthetic Minor Permit Application • Two forms to fill out ( • New Source General Application • Synthetic Minor Limit Application U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  24. Synthetic Minor Limit Application • Needs to include: • The requested limitation • How the limitation will affect actual or potential emissions • Monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting to assure compliance with the limitation • Should include EPA Reference Methods when applicable • Should include frequency, methods, and quality assurance. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  25. Synthetic Minor Limit Application • Needs to include (cont’d): • Description and estimated efficiency of pollution control equipment, if any • Calculations or test results that are the basis of the emissions estimates • Estimates of GHG pollutants U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  26. True Minor Permit Application • Fill out only the New Source General Application Form • Narrative description of the production process, with flow chart • Processing, combustion, handling, storage, and emissions control • List of emissions units • Types and quantities of fuels and/or raw materials to be used U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  27. True Minor Permit Application • New Source General Application Form (cont’d) • Proposed operating schedule • Emissions controls and their efficiencies • Emissions estimates for the regulated pollutants, on an emissions unit basis. • Air Quality Impact Analysis (AQIA), if required • Endangered Species Act (ESA) analysis, if required • National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) analysis, if required U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  28. Air Quality Impact Analysis (AQIA)aka Modeling Analysis • EPA will require an AQIA if: • There is concern about keeping an area in attainment status, or • It’s necessary to accurately assess the source’s adverse air quality effects • If AQIA reveals that source could cause or contribute to a NAAQS/PSD increment violation, such adverse impacts must be reduced before the permit is issued. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  29. AQIA cont’d • Factors that can make AQIA requirement more likely: • Poor dispersion characteristics such as rain caps, horizontal stacks, fugitive releases, or building downwash • Complex terrain • Area has existing air quality concerns U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  30. AQIA cont’d • Modeling process • Qualitative assessment • Screening analysis • Refined modeling • PSD increment and NAAQS analysis • Additional Impact Analysis U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  31. Endangered Species Act (ESA) Analysis • ESA requires EPA to ensure its permits will not likely jeopardize listed species or critical habitats. • Permit applicants can get local listed species from • If required, EPA will consult with U.S. FWS and/or NOAA before permit issuance. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  32. National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) Analysis • NHPA requires EPA to ensure its permits will not likely affect cultural resources. • Permit applicants can get listing of local resources at • If required, EPA will consult with State and/or Tribal Historic Preservation Officers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  33. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  34. Permit Drafting • Application completeness determination • Within 45 days (60 days for synthetic minors), EPA reviews the application and sends source a completeness finding or request for additional information. • Application is automatically deemed complete if EPA sends nothing in 45 days. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  35. Permit Drafting cont’d • After application deemed complete, EPA drafts: • Permit • Technical support document • Public notice • Documentation for consultations with U.S. FWS, NOAA, SHPO, THPO, if necessary U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  36. Timelines • Permit granted within: • One year after application is deemed complete for a synthetic minor. • 135 days after application is deemed complete for a true minor • 90 days after request for coverage is deemed complete for a general permit U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  37. Public Noticing • Public notice announces the 30-day opportunity to review the draft permit and/or request a public hearing. • Rule requires PN to be mailed to: • Indian governing body • State/local air pollution authorities with jurisdiction • Rule allows additional PN postings to: • Email list • Local newspaper • Public areas (post offices, libraries, Tribal environmental offices, community centers, etc.) • Other appropriate forums U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  38. Final Issuance • EPA notifies applicant and the public of decision to grant/deny permit. • Final permit becomes effective 30 days after service of notice unless: • Permit specifies later date (or effective immediately if no comments received) • Permit is appealed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  39. Appeal • Appeal = petition to the Environmental Appeals Board to review the final permitting decision. • May be filed by anyone who commented on the draft permit or participated in the public hearing during the 30-day public review period. • Others may only appeal on the changes between the draft and final versions, and only on the grounds that the changes weren’t reasonably ascertainable. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  40. Appeal cont’d • Petition must state the reasons the EAB should review the decision (limited to the issues brought up during public comment period) • The permit terms in question are stayed until the EAB issues a decision. • Motion to reconsider the EAB’s final order may be filed within 10 days. • Federal Court of Appeals is next step of review sought after all administrative options have been exhausted. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  41. Region 5’s Tribal Permit Website • • Click “U.S. EPA-Issued Permits” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  42. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency