“The Magnificent African Cake”:The Partition and Colonization of Africa Chapter Three
‘Legitimate’Trade • Prior to 19th Century (1800s), Africa’s largest export was enslaved Africans • Slavery began to fall out of favour during the 1830s, and it was formally abolished in the United States in 1865.
From this unit you should know… • 1. How explorers and missionaries changed Africa. • 2. How colonialism affected all facets of African life. • Imperialism – a policy of controlling and then ruling other lands as colonies. The desire to gain power by extending one’s rule beyond one’s borders. • Colonialism – the process of acquiring and maintaining colonies. • The two are very similar. Imperialism can be economic control, military influence, etc. over another place, Imperialism often leads to colonialism.
Motivations for exploring outside of Europe • In the 15th century, the motivation was the three G’s: gold, God, and glory
Part 1 – Explorers and missionaries changed Africa • During the slave-trade, Europeans did not live in Africa • 18th Century – Europeans developed a desire to explore the continent • Potential for trade and land acquisition • The “Scramble for Africa” – within 2 decades, Africa was divided among European nations.
The Partition • “Legitimate trade” – the time period after slavery when Europeans traded with Africa for actual products • Gold, ivory, cloves, peanuts, cotton, rubber • Is the use of the term “legitimate” fair or accurate? • Several factors contributed to this new economy………..
Factors affecting the Partition: The four C’s • Commerce (Wealth) – Palm oil was particularly valuable in Europe (industrial). Europeans could make money in Africa through this trade. • Competition – European nations wanted to have more land than their neighbours (or enemies). Germany wanted to pit Britain vs. France to strengthen its own standing… • Christianity (Missions) – Many wanted to bring the “light” of Christianity to “dark” Africa • Civilization (European Settlement) – European countries encouraged their citizens to move to Africa.
King Leopold II • First European to seize territory in Africa • Hired Henry M. Stanley to investigate the Congo River • Stanley claimed territory 80 times larger than Belgium in Leopold’s name
The Berlin Conference • Berlin Conference – 1884 • Europeans decided how the official colonization of Africa would take place • No Africans were invited • Rules and regulations for the process were signed by 13 European nations. • The process required 3 stages:
Berlin Conference Regulations (outlined in Berlin Act 1885) • King Leopold II was to allow free trade in the Congo to all European nations. • European countries were free to colonize coastal areas that they already occupied and to extend their rule some distance inland. • Each nation was required to notify all other signing countries when they occupied a new territory
Continued… • Treaties with African kings were accepted as valid titles to territories. • European powers were to state their intent toward the African people. This included promises for the protection of Africans ‘in their moral and material being, the suppression of slavery and the slave trade [and] the education of the natives.’
3 Stages of Partition • Treaty-making between European nation and African ruler “Treaty of Protection” • Treaty-making between European nations to formalize boundaries • Occupation of the African country “Pacification stage” – often violent
Promises of The Berlin Act • Europeans promised to do the following: • Protect Africans • Suppress the slave trade • Educate the African people • More often than not, these promises were broken
Lesson Review 1 (page 41) • Define a and b • Identify a, b, c, d, e • Answer 1, 2, 3, 4
Part 2 – Colonialism affected all facets of African life • Africans resisted colonialism. There were rebellions as European nations tried to occupy their land. • Europeans had superior weapons, but there was significant resistance.
Methods of Ruling • Methods of ruling were very “ethnocentric”. European nations assumed that the African people were inferior: • Assimilation – colonized people were expected to become absorbed into the culture of the ruling nation
Direct Rule – an appointed official (ex: governor general) received orders from the nation’s capital back in Europe. • Indirect Rule – African rulers could form councils who reported to an officer from the European power.
Economic Growth • By 1914, colonial powers were firmly established in Africa with growing colonial economies. • Agriculture – major emphasis was on ‘cash crops’ for export • Canadian examples? • Mining – control of mining was from European firms.
Effects of economic activity • Emphasis on exporting, meant not enough food was grown for the Africans themselves • Africans became dependant on Europe • Concentrating an economy on only one large crop was risky (can you think of modern examples?) • Mining was dangerous and poorly paid • Labour was often forced
Economics continued • Barter or trade (the traditional African economic method) was replaced by currency or money • African currency was very de-valued • Africans were paid in African money, but taxed in European currency rates • Structures like railroads, telegraphs as well as services like hospitals were paid for by Africans who rarely benefited or used them.
Social Changes • Urbanization – new cities were built, people moved to cities looking for better opportunities • Education – Important aspect of colonialism – varied between colonies • Religion – Christianity spread to many parts of Africa and changed African culture significantly
NOW COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING • Define a,b,c • Identify a,b,c • Answer 2,3,5