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Servicescapes

Servicescapes

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Servicescapes

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  1. Servicescapes How physical surroundings influence the service encounter Or Setting the experience stage

  2. Before We Start • Think back to the last time you visited one of these type places: • A hotel • A theme park • Sporting ground • Shopping Centre • What was the ‘place’ like? • Analyse the servicescape

  3. Service and the concept of inseparability • What is the concept of inseparability? • The service is Produced & Consumed simultaneously • How does this impact on the service encounter? • For the customer? • For employees? • How does your work environment make you feel?

  4. The importance of ‘place’ in the service encounter • The customer is ‘in the factory’ • What does the ‘place’ say about the service? • What role do physical ‘cues’ have in communicating image?

  5. Servicescapes • The term refers to: • The Service environment • The ‘Place’ where the service takes place • In effect the ‘Stage’ for Pine & Gilmore • The use of the physical evidence to design service environments

  6. Servicescapes • Provide for: • Function • Provide the Built environment • Set the spatial layout and functionality • Form • Help set the theme • Elements related to aesthetic appeal

  7. A Theory of Servicescapes • Today we will have a look at a theoretical model developed by • Mary J. Bitner (1992)

  8. Typology of Service OrganisationsRemote, Self-Service & Interpersonal Human interaction Physical Setting

  9. Servicescapes Bitner, M.J. (1992)

  10. Physical Environmental Dimensions • Ambient Conditions • Temperature • Air Quality • Noise • Music • Order • Space/Function • Layout • Equipment • Furnishings • Signs, Symbols & Artefacts • Signage • Personal artefacts • Style of décor

  11. Holistic Environment • Is the Perception of the Servicescape • How do customers view the Servicescape? • How do employees view the Servicescape? • The perception is individual and therefore variable • For example the perspective of different customer types • E.g. Customer who purchases on price • Personalized customers who want attention & pampering • Ethical customers (e.g. Members of Slow Food)

  12. Internal Response Moderators • These can simply be viewed as either: • Approach Behaviours • Stay, explore, communicate & are satisfied • Avoidance Behaviours • Leave, ignore, non communicative & are disappointed

  13. Internal Response Moderators • Relate to three basic emotional states • Pleasure – Displeasure • How satisfied are customers/employees with the service experience • Arousal – Nonarousal • Degree to which customers/employees feel excited & stimulated • Dominance – Submissiveness • Reflects the degree of control & ability to act freely in the service environment

  14. Internal Responses to the Environment • Emotional – How does it make you feel? • For example • Different types of music • Different Smells • Different colours

  15. Internal Responses to the Environment • Cognitive – Individuals thought processes including • Beliefs = the environment provides non-verbal communication • E.g. What do you think if it is untidy? • Categorization – creating order • How does a ‘place’ compare with existing ‘places’? • What therefore is the expectation created by this order? • People will act according to existing ‘scripts’ for different types of places • Symbolic meaning – How can the place be read • What does McDonald's communicate?

  16. Internal Responses to the Environment • Physiological – physical pleasure or pain • For Example • Loud music • Smokey environment • Dimly lit restaurant – eye strain • For employees in particular • OHS issues • Safety • Proper equipment

  17. Behavioural Responses to the Environment • How do individuals then behave • For example in a retail environment do they • Enjoy shopping • Stay longer • Visit more frequently • Spend more • Explore the retail environment • Or is it visa versa • Does the environment encourage social interaction?

  18. Creating Atmosphere • Tactics of Service Atmospherics • Servicescape tactics - video • Think about the experience you are trying to create – ask the questions • Who is the target market? • What do they require/need/expect from the service? • How can you create a coherent theme? • What can you use to create the theme? • How do you appeal to the senses?

  19. Atmospherics – an appeal to the senses • Sight – an appeal to the visual • Size, shape & colours • Harmony, contrast and clash • Consider • Architecture • Signage • Entrances – making a statement (e.g. Hotel foyers) • Location & visibility (& accessibility) • Location & surrounding environment • Lighting • Importance of First impressions

  20. Atmospherics – an appeal to the senses • Sound - Three major roles • Mood setter • Music & mood • How does music make you behave • Type, tempo, loudness • Attention Graber • Announcements, loud sounds etc. • Informer • Some examples supermarket & State Rail • Sound Avoidance – minimising undesirable sound • E.g. kitchen noise, night club sound, toilets flushing or air conditioning units

  21. Atmospherics – an appeal to the senses • Scent • Favourable • Hot Bread – hunger = increased food purchase • Selling the sizzle • Hospitals – smell hygienic • New Cars • Unfavourable • Removing (or masking) unpleasant odours • E.g. Smoking, garbage rooms or kitchens

  22. Atmospherics – an appeal to the senses • Touch • Consider – • Online shopping V’s in store & handling the merchandise • Meeting face to face (e.g. shaking hands)

  23. Atmospherics – an appeal to the senses • Taste – can use as • A sample of product • As an attractor • ‘Free food’

  24. Other ConsiderationsBased upon level of customer contact • Location • Need to be close to customer • Call centre V’s car wash • Airport • Facility Layout • High Contact (e.g. Hotel) V’s Low (call centre) • Cost of fit out • Major focus Customer or employee needs • The intangibility of the product • How intangible is the product? • How much does it require visual representation? • Education (sandstone Uni’s) V’s mail order business (delivered product) • Number of mini-service encounters • E.g. Staying in a Hotel V’s a single service encounter

  25. Why Servicescapes are important