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CHAPTER FOUR. Job Analysis and Rewards. Screen graphics created by: Jana F. Kuzmicki, PhD Troy State University-Florida and Western Region . McGraw-Hill/Irwin. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Organization. Vision and Mission Goals and Objectives.

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Chapter four

Job Analysis and Rewards

Screen graphics created by:

Jana F. Kuzmicki, PhD

Troy State University-Florida and Western Region


© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

Staffing organizations model


Vision and Mission

Goals and Objectives

Organization Strategy

HR and Staffing Strategy

Staffing Organizations Model

Staffing Policies and Programs

Support Activities

Core Staffing Activities

Legal compliance

Recruitment: External, internal


Selection:Measurement, external, internal

Job analysis

Employment:Decision making, final match

Staffing System and Retention Management

Chapter outline

Types of Jobs

Job Requirements JA


Job Requirements Matrix

Job Descriptions and Job Specifications

Collecting Job Requirements Information

Competency-Based JA

Nature of Competencies

Collecting Competency Information

Job Rewards

Types of Rewards

Employee Value Proposition

Collecting Job Rewards Information

Legal Issues

Job Relatedness and Court Cases

Essential JobFunctions

Chapter Outline

Types of jobs


Exh. 4.1: Terminology Commonly Used in Describing Jobs





Classification of teams

Staffing implications

Extent to which a team member performs one job vs. multiple jobs

Degree of task interdependence among team members


Types of Jobs

Job requirements job analysis overview
Job Requirements Job Analysis: Overview

  • Definition

    • Process of studying jobs to gather, analyze, synthesize, and report information about job requirements

  • Two major forms

    • Job requirements

      • Specific KSAOs for the job

    • Competency based

      • General KSAOs for all applicants

  • Has different degrees of relevance to staffing activities

  • Support activity for staffing activities

    • Provides foundation for successful staffing systems

Job requirements job analysis
Job Requirements Job Analysis

  • Overview

    • Exh. 4.3: Job RequirementsApproach to JA

  • Job requirements matrix

  • Job descriptions and job specifications

  • Collecting job requirements information

Exh 4 3 job requirements approach to job analysis
Exh. 4.3: Job RequirementsApproach to Job Analysis

Job requirements matrix
Job Requirements Matrix

  • Exh. 4.3: Portion of Job Requirements Matrix for Job of Administrative Assistant

  • Task statements

  • Task dimensions

  • Importance of tasks / dimensions

  • KSAOs

  • KSAO importance

  • Job context

Task statements
Task Statements

  • Definition

    • Objectively written descriptions ofbehaviors or work activities engagedin by employees to perform job

  • Exh. 4.4: Use of Sentence AnalysisTechnique for Task Statements

Exh 4 5 use of sentence analysis technique for task statements
Exh. 4.5: Use of Sentence AnalysisTechnique for Task Statements

Characteristics of task statements

What employee does, using a specific verb at start of statement

To whom or what employee does what he/she does

What is produced, indicating expected output

What materials, tools, procedures, or equipment used

Use specific action verbs, having only one meaning

Focus on recording tasks, not elements (15-25)

Do not include trivial activities

Ensure list of tasks is content valid and reliable

Analysts should include manager and an incumbent

Accuracy of statements cannot be evaluated against external criterion

Characteristics of Task Statements

Requirements: Task Statements

Suggestions: Effectively Writing Task Statements

Task dimensions
Task Dimensions statement

  • Definition

    • Involves grouping sets of task statements into dimensions, attaching a name to each dimension

    • Other terms -- “duties,” “accountability areas,” “responsibilities,” and “performance dimensions”

  • Characteristics

    • Creation is optional

    • Many different grouping procedures exist

      • Guideline - 4 to 8 dimensions

    • Grouping procedure should be acceptable to organizational members

    • Empirical validation against external criterion is not possible

Importance of tasks dimensions
Importance of Tasks/Dimensions statement

  • Involves an objective assessment of importance

  • Two decisions

    • Decide on attribute to be assessed in terms of importance

    • Decide whether attribute will be measured in categorical or continuous terms

  • Exh. 4.5: Examples of Ways to Assess Task/Dimension Importance

    • Relative time spent

    • Percentage (%) time spent

    • Importance to overall performance

    • Need for new employee training

KSAOs statement

  • What are KSAOs?

    • Knowledge - Exh. 4.6: Knowledges Contained in O*NET

    • Skill - Exh. 4.7: Skills Contained in O*NET

    • Ability - Exh. 4.8: Abilities Contained in O*NET

    • Other Characteristics - Exh. 4.9: Examples of Other Job Requirements

  • KSAO importance

    • Exh. 4.10: Examples of Ways to Assess KSAO Importance

  • Job context

    • Exh. 4.11: Job Context Contained in O*NET

Job descriptions and job specifications
Job Descriptions and statementJob Specifications

  • Job description

    • Describes tasks, task dimensions, importance of tasks / dimensions, and job context

    • Includes

      • Job family, job title, job summary

      • Task statements and dimensions

      • Importance indicators

      • Job context indicators

      • Date conducted

  • Job specifications

    • Describes KSAOs

  • Exh. 4.12: Example of Combined Job Description / Specification

Collecting job requirements information
Collecting Job Requirements Information statement

  • Methods

  • Sources to be used

  • Job analysis process

Collecting job requirements information methods
Collecting Job Requirements Information: Methods statement

  • Prior information

  • Observation

  • Interviews

  • Questionnaire

  • Combined methods

  • Criteria for choice of methods

    • Exh. 4.13: Criteria for Guiding Choice of JA Methods

Collecting job requirements information sources
Collecting Job Requirements Information: Sources statement

  • Job analyst

  • Job incumbents

  • Supervisors

  • SMEs

  • Combined sources

Collecting job requirements information ja process
Collecting Job Requirements Information: JA Process statement

  • Purpose

  • Scope

  • Internal staff or consultant - See Exh. 4.14

  • Organization and coordination

  • Communication

  • Work flow and time frame

  • Analysis, synthesis, and documentation

  • Maintenance of system

  • Example of JA process - See Exh. 4.15

Competency based job analysis
Competency-Based Job Analysis statement

  • Nature of competencies

  • Competency example

  • Organization usage

  • Collecting competency information

What is a competency
What is a Competency? statement

  • Definition

    • An underlying characteristic of an individual contributing to

      • Job or role performance and

      • Organizational success

  • Similarities to KSAOs

  • Differences between competencies and KSAOs

    • May contribute to success on multiple jobs

    • Contribute not only to job performance but also to organizational success

Organization usage
Organization Usage statement

  • Organizations are experimenting with

    • Developing competencies and competency models and

    • Using them as underpinnings of several HR applications

  • Three strategic HR reasons for doing competency modeling

    • Create awareness and understanding of need for change in business

    • Enhance skill levels of workforce

    • Improve teamwork and coordination

  • Emphasis -- Establishing general competencies

Collecting competency information
Collecting Competency Information statement

  • Techniques and processes are in their infancy

  • General competencies at the organizational /strategic level are established by top management

  • Guidelines for establishing general competency requirements

    • Organization must establish its mission and goals prior to determining competency requirements

    • Should be important at all job levels

    • Should have specific, behavioral definitions, not just labels

Job rewards
Job Rewards statement

  • Exh. 4.17—Extrinsic rewards

    • Direct compensation: base pay and variable pay

    • Indirect compensation: benefits

    • Hours of work

    • Career advancement

    • Job security

  • Exh. 4.18—Intrinsic rewards

Job rewards collecting information
Job Rewards: statementCollecting Information

  • Within the organization

    • Interviews with employees

    • Surveys with employees

  • Outside the organization

    • SHRM survey

    • Organizational practices

Legal issues
Legal Issues statement

  • Job relatedness and court cases

    • Recommendations -- Establishing job-related nature of staffing practices

  • Essential job functions

    • What are essential functions? P. 190

    • Evidence of essential functions - P. 190

    • Role of job analysis - See Exh. 4.23

Recommendations establishing job related nature of staffing practices
Recommendations: Establishing statementJob-Related Nature of Staffing Practices

  • Job analysis must be performed and must be for the job for which the selection instrument is to be utilized

  • Analysis of job should be in writing

  • Job analysis should describe in detail the procedure used

  • Job data should be collected from a variety of current sources by knowledgeable job analysts

  • Sample size should be large and representative of jobs for which selection instrument is used

  • Tasks, duties, and activities should be included in analysis

  • Most important tasks should be represented in selection devise

  • Competency levels of job performance for entry-level jobs should be specified

  • Knowledge, skills, and abilities should be specified, particularly if content validation model is followed

Ethical issues
Ethical Issues statement

  • Issue 1

    • It has been suggested that “ethical conduct” be formally incorporated as a general competency requirement for any job within the organization. Discuss the pros and cons of this suggestion.

  • Issue 2

    • Assume you are assisting in the conduct of job analysis as an HR department representative. You have encountered several managers who want to delete certain tasks and KSAOs from the formal job description having to do with employee safety, even though they clearly are job requirements. How should you handle this situation?