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Chapter 26

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Chapter 26

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  1. Chapter 26 The Futile Search for a New Stability: Europe Between the Wars, 1919 - 1939

  2. Timeline

  3. An Uncertain Peace: The Search for Security • Weaknesses of the League of Nations • The French Policy of Coercion (1919 – 1924) • Desire for strict enforcement the Treaty of Versailles • Allied Reparations Commission, April 1921 $33 billion • Paid in annual installments of billion gold marks • Germany unable to pay in 1922 • French occupation of the Ruhr Valley • German mark fall to 4.2 trillion to $1, end of November 1923 • The Hopeful Years (1924 – 1929) • Dawes Plan, 1924 • Treaty of Locarno, 1925 • Coexistence with Soviet Union

  4. The Little Entente

  5. The Great Depression • Problems in domestic economies • International financial crisis • Crash of the American stock market, October 1929 • Affects European markets • Unemployment • Social Repercussions • Powerlessness of Governments

  6. The Democratic States • Great Britain • Labour Party failed to solve problems • Coalition claimed credit for prosperity • John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) • Keynes says the government should create jobs • France • Was the strongest power in Europe • Could not solved financial problems • Popular Front • The United States • Herbert Hoover, (1929-1933) • Franklin D. Roosevelt, (1933-1945) • New Deal • Public works projects • World War II ends the depression

  7. European States and the World: Colonial Empires • Rising tide of unrest in Asia and Africa • The Middle East • Division of Ottoman Empire • Turkey • Colonel Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) • India • Mohandas Gandhi (1869 – 1948) and Civil Disobedience • Africa • Britain and France awarded German colonies • Protest movements

  8. Retreat from Democracy: The Authoritarian and Totalitarian States • Totalitarianism • By 1939 only France and Great Britain are democracies • The modern totalitarian state • Active commitment of citizens • Mass propaganda techniques • High speed communication • Led by single leader and single party

  9. Fascist Italy • Impact of World War I • Italians angry over failure to receive territory after World War I • Birth of Fascism • Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) • Fascio di Combattimento (League of Combat), 1919 • Growth of the socialist • Squadristi, armed Fascists • Fascist movement gains support from industrialists • March on Rome, 1922 • Mussolini appointed prime minister, October 29, 1922

  10. Mussolini and the Italian Fascist State • Fascist Government • All parties outlawed, 1926 – Fascist dictatorship established • Mussolini’s view of a Fascist state • Young Fascists • Family is the pillar of the state • Never achieves the degree of totalitarianism like Germany or Soviet Union • Lateran Accords, February 1929

  11. Hitler and Nazi Germany • Weimar Germany • No leaders • Paul von Hindenberg elected president, 1925 • Great Depression • The Emergence of Adolf Hitler • Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) • Vienna • Lanz von Liebenfels • Munich • The Rise of the Nazis • German Workers’ Party • National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP), 1921 • Sturmabteilung (SA), Storm Troops

  12. Hitler and Nazi Germany (cont) • The Nazi Seizure of Power • Munich Beer Hall Putsch, November 1923 • Hitler imprisoned • Mein Kampf, (My Struggle) • Lebensraum (living space) • Reorganization of the party • New strategies • Nazi party largest in the Reichstag after 1932 election • Support from right-wing elites • Becomes chancellor, January 30, 1933 • Reichstag fire, February 27, 1933 • Successes in 1933 election • Enabling Act, March 23, 1933 • Gleichschaltung, coordination of all institutions under Nazi control • President Paul von Hindenburg dies, August 2, 1934

  13. The Nazi State (1933-1939) • Parliamentary republic dismantled • Mass demonstrations and spectacles to create collective fellowship • Constant rivalry gives Hitler power • Economics and the drop in unemployment • Heinrich Himmler and the SS • Churches, schools, and universities brought under Nazi control • Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) and Bund deutscher Mädel (League of German Maidens) • Influence of Nazi ideas on working women • Aryan Racial State • Nuremberg laws, September 1935 • Kristallnacht, November 9-10, 1938 • Restrictions on Jews

  14. The Soviet Union • New Economic Policy • Modified capitalism • Union of Socialist Republics established, 1922 • Revived economy • Lenin suffers strokes, (1922-1924) • Division • Leon Trotsky • Joseph Stalin • General Party Secretary

  15. The Stalinist Era, (1929-1939) • First Five Year Plan, 1928 • Emphasis on industry • Real wages declined • Use of propaganda • Rapid collectivization of agriculture • Famine of 1932-1933; 10 million peasants died • Political Control • Stalin’s dictatorship established, 1929 • Political purge, 1936-1938; 8 million arrested

  16. Authoritarianism in Eastern Europe • Conservative Authoritarian Governments • Eastern Europe • Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia adopted parliamentary systems • Romania and Bulgaria gained new parliamentary constitutions • Greece became a republic • Hungary parliamentary in form; controlled by landed aristocrats • Problems • Little or no tradition of liberalism and parliamentary form • Rural and agrarian society • Ethnic conflicts

  17. Dictatorship in the Iberian Peninsula • General Miguel Primo de Rivera and the End of Parliamentary Government (1923) • The Spanish Civil War • The Popular Front • General Francisco Franco (1892 – 1975) • Foreign intervention • Franco emerges victorious (March 28, 1939) • The Franco Regime • Traditional, conservative, dictatorship • Portugal • Antonio Salazar (1889 – 1970)

  18. Expansion of Mass Culture and Mass Leisure • The Roaring Twenties • Berlin, the entertainment center of Europe • Josephine Baker (1906-1975) • Jazz Age

  19. Radio and Movies: Mass forms of Communication & Entertainment • Radio • Nellie Melba, June 16, 1920 • BBC, 1926 • Movies • Quo Vadis; Birth of a Nation • Stars became subjects of adoration • Marlene Dietrich • Used for political purposes • Nazis encourage cheap radios • Triumph of the Will, 1934

  20. Mass Leisure • Sports • Tourism • Organized Mass Leisure in Italy and Germany • Dopolavoro in Italy • Kraft durch Freude in Germany

  21. Cultural & Intellectual Trends in the Interwar Years • Prewar avant-garde culture becomes acceptable • Political, economic, and social insecurities • Radical changes in women’s styles • Theodor van de Velde • Ideal Marriage: Its Physiology and Technique • Nightmares and New Visions: Art and Music • Abstract painting; fascination with the absurd • Dadaism • Tristan Tzara (1896-1945) • Surrealism • Salvador Dali (1904-1989) • Functionalism in Modern Architecture • Bauhaus School in Germany

  22. Cultural & Intellectual Trends (cont) • A Popular Audience • Kurt Weill, The Threepenny Opera • Art in Totalitarian Regimes • Art in service of the state • A New Style in Music • Arnold Schönberg (1874 – 1951)

  23. Literature & Physics Between the Wars • The Search for the Unconscious • James Joyce (1882-1941), Ulysses • Hermann Hesse (1877-1962) • Impact of Freud • Carl Jung (1856-1961) • The “Heroic Age of Physics” • Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), atom could be split • Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976), “uncertainty principle”

  24. Discussion Questions • How would you define fascism? How was fascism different from traditional authoritarianism? • What were the strengths and weaknesses of Weimar democracy? • Compare and contrast Stalin’s Soviet Union and Hitler’s Germany. What did the two states have in common? • What anxieties were reflected in the cultural and intellectual trends of the interwar period?

  25. Web Links • Italian Life under Fascism • The History Place: The Rise of Adolf Hitler • Life in the USSR under Stalin • Joseph Stalin: Biographical Chronicle • The World of Kurt Weill • bauhaus-archiv: Museum of Design