Picture SMART starter Moscow Romania Bulgaria East Germany Poland Hungary Czechoslovakia What so you think the term ‘puppet state’ means and how does it relate to the Cold war?
1956 The Hungarian Uprising Evaluate the causes, content and consequences of the Hungarian uprising. The BIG picture Evaluate the content and consequences of the uprising. Identify the causes of the uprising. Understand the 3 C’s To place 1956 into context.
Rakosi was seen as being too harsh a ruler and too extreme for Khrushchev during this period of di-stalinisation. • Consequently Rakosi was replaced by a new leader of Hungary Imre Nagy. • Nagy and Rakosi now became involved in a bitter power struggle with each other. • Rakosi criticising Nagy and blamed him for all Hungary’s economic problems (that he had actually caused!!!!) • Rakosi successfully retook his position as head of the Hungarian Communist Party. • Rakosi was undermined though by the Leader of the Soviet Union Khrushchev who in his ‘secret speech’ denounced many of Stalins ideas. Many people took encouragement from this. • Rakosi is replaced by Erno Gero.
On 23 October, students gathered in Budapest to protest about the Soviet influence in Hungary. • The police arrested to some of the protesters and this escalated into violence with first tear gas being used then police opening fire on the students. • The following day more protesters gathered. They chanted ‘Russian go home’ and ‘long live Nagy’. A statue of Stalin was pulled down. • Russian tanks had to be used to keep the peace. • Khrushchev reacted by place Nagy back in charge of the government. • Nagy encourage the tanks to leave. • Nagy was very liberal and removed the state control of the media, he encouraged open discussions and even released anti-communists from prison. Nagy even talked of holding free elections and that Hungary may leave the Warsaw Pact. • This alarmed many communists, most importantly the leader of China Mao Tse Tung who began to pressure Khrushchev as to what he would do as the leader of the Soviet Union to stop this.
American newsreel footage of the Hungarian Uprising. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WY7_vSDPr6M&feature=related
Khrushchev is forced under pressure to send the Red Army back into Budapest because he did want to be seen to be weak. • November, at dawn, 1000 Russian tanks rolled into Budapest. By 8.10 am they had destroyed the Hungarian army and captured Hungarian Radio – its last words broadcast were ‘Help! Help! Help”!’ Hungarian people – even children – fought them with machine guns. Some 4000 Hungarians killed fighting the Russians • The protesters fight with great bravery despite being very poorly armed .Nagy believes that as he is resisting the communists that he will receive aid and support from America. • The protesters continue to fight the Red Army in street battles. • The new American President is called Eisenhower and he is very reluctant to get involved. • Aid and support from America never comes. • The rebels continue sporadic fights into 1957, but they are ultimately defeated.
Around 20,000 rebels were killed and round 7,000 of the Red Army. • Khrushchev was able to remain as head of the Soviet Union. • Khrushchev had given out a warning that there would be a strong response to any satellite state that wished to break away from the Soviet Union. • The Iron Curtain had remained unbroken. • The West had failed to intervene to help countries wanting to break away from the East.
Historical overview of the Hungarian Uprising. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVdQ9PK9Q5o