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Cohesion : Signposting and punctuation. References : Bailey, S. 2011. Academic Writing : A Handbook for International Students . Routledge : Oxon . Swales , J. & Feak , C. 1994. Academic Writing for Graduate Students . The University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor .

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cohesion signposting and punctuation

Cohesion:Signposting and punctuation


Bailey, S. 2011. AcademicWriting: A Handbook for International Students. Routledge: Oxon.

Swales, J. & Feak, C. 1994. AcademicWriting for GraduateStudents. The University of Michigan Press: AnnArbor.

Swan, M. 1995 PracticalEnglishUsage. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press: Oxford


we ve been talking about flow
  • Language of academicpapers vocabularyshift
  • Organizing information in a paper  paragraphs and sentences
  • Now, to establish a clearconnection of ideas…
  • Uselinkingwords and phrases as well as punctuation.
part 1 linking words and phrases

Part 1: Linkingwords and phrases

Can help maintainflow and establishclearrelationshipsbetweenideas

Canbearrangedaccording to theirfunction and grammaticaluse.

also called a discourse marker
Alsocalled a ’discoursemarker’

Discoursemeans ’pieces of languagelongerthan a sentence’. Somewords and expressionsareused to show howdiscourse is constructed. Theycan show the connectionbetweenwhat a speaker is saying and whathasalreadybeensaidorwhat is going to besaid; theycanindicatewhatspeakersthinkaboutwhattheyaresayingorwhatothershavesaid.

(Swan, 1995, p. 159)


Independentclause: He washandy.

what they are and what they do

Whattheyare and whattheydo

Formal, academicstyle


Informal: So, Anotherthing is, In any case, Besides,…= notacceptable

cause and effect
Cause and effect

Informal: So, Then, … = unacceptable

additional information

UsingEnglish for AcademicPurposes (UEFAP)


OnlineWritingLab (OWL) at PurdueUniversity



AcademicWriting in English (AWE) website


Bailey, S. (2011) AcademicWriting: A Handbook for International Students

Part 2 (pgs. 101-149)

this these summary word
This (these)+ summary word
  • ESL lecturersknowthatstudentsneed to understand the differencesbetweenformal and informallanguage. However,thisunderstandingcannotusuallybeaquiredquickly.
  • This = demonstrativepronoun
  • Refers to the previousphrase (givennew)
other pronoun possibilities
  • Basics – he, she, it, they, we
  • Posessive – his, her(s),its, their(s), our (not common in AW)
  • Objective – her, him, them, us (not common in AW)
  • Demonstrative – this, that, these, those
  • Other – the former, the latter, the aforementioned, the abovementioned,
  • Readingtextbook
    • Chapters:
      • 2.4: Comparisons
      • 2.9: Problems and solutions
      • 3.9: Punctuation
part 2 punctuation

Part 2: Punctuation

Sentence connectors raise the important issue of punctuation

You have to learn the proper use of punctuation in English and in your field

We only deal with some punctuation, namely comma (,), semicolon (;), colon (:) and dash(-)

  • Joinstwo (completelyindependent) clauses/phrasesthatarerelatedorconnected to eachother.
  • Works muchlike a full stop (period)
    • Air trafficdelaysdue to hightrafficvolumehaveincreasedconsiderablyover the lastdecade; thesedelayshavebecome a majorpublicpolicyissue.
  • Somearguethatit’sstrongerthancomma and weakerthan a period.
  • Canbeusedwithsentenceconnectors
    • Increasing the size of airports is onesolution to trafficcongestion; however, this is a long-termsolutionwhosebenefitsmaynotbeseen for manyyears into the future.
  • Canbeused to separaterather long items in list :
    • Some of the solutions to the air trafficdelayproblemincludeincreasing the size of airportsthatroutinelyexperieceflightdelays; overhauling the air trafficcontrolsystemsothatmoreflightscanbesafelyhandled; and increasinglandingfees.
  • Is usuallyusedif the information is grammaticallycomplex.
colon and comma
Colon and Comma
  • Weakerstops
  • Comma (,) separatesitems in a list
  • Colon (:) introduces a list and explanations
    • The meetingwaspostponed: the Dean was ill.
  • Commasusedwithconjunctions (and, but, or) and subordinators (although, if, whereas)
    • Therearefour main causes of airportcongestion: badweather, excessivevolume, runwayclosures, and equipmentoutages.
  • Sometimes a dash is used to introduce a list
  • Theyareused to intrudeadditionalinformation to a sentence, muchlikebrackets ().
    • Therearefour main causes of airportcongestion: badweather – such as a snowstorm – maygroundplanes…
  • Mostly, though, a dash is moreoftenused in informaltexts.