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Paradoxes in Philanthropy Theories, Practices, and Realities of Social Justice Philanthropy. Philanthropology™ 201 in the EPIP Dialogue Series. Presented by Omisade Burney-Scott and Rusty Stahl Georgia Justice Project, Atlanta, May 5, 2005. ABOUT PHILANTHROPOLOGY. Why What Understanding

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Paradoxes in Philanthropy Theories, Practices, and Realities of Social Justice Philanthropy


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    1. Paradoxes in PhilanthropyTheories, Practices, and Realities of Social Justice Philanthropy Philanthropology™ 201 in the EPIP Dialogue Series Presented by Omisade Burney-Scott and Rusty StahlGeorgia Justice Project, Atlanta, May 5, 2005

    2. ABOUT PHILANTHROPOLOGY • Why • What • Understanding • Paradoxes • Transforming • Generations • How • Chapter workshops • National workshops Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    3. ABOUT THIS WORKSHOP Outcomes: • Inform participants work with history, theories, and models • Take-away resources • Plant the seeds for a NC peer network Methodology: • Provide framework and resources • Peer-based learning • Reflection on ideas and practice Content: • Defining terms • Historic context • SJP models • Resources • Reception Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    4. I. DEFINITIONS • Philanthropy • Social Justice Philanthropy • Paradoxes in Social Justice Philanthropy Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    5. Philanthropy Philanthropy is a word deviated from the Greek - phil is the prefix meaning "love" and anthropy meaning "of human beings" as it is used in the word, "anthropology." “The Voluntary transfer of significant values identified with the self, or an extension of the self to other entities perceived as wanting. The quantum values may be intangible, as in the case of love, labor, services or support: or they may be concrete and tangible as in the case of money, works of art, clothing, shelter, and the like.” C. Erick Lincoln Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    6. II. Paradoxes • Definitions • Examples Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    7. Paradox • a statement that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense and yet is perhaps true • one that possesses seemingly contradictory qualities or phases Merriam Webster Dictionary Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    8. Systemic Paradoxes in Social Justice Philanthropy Traditional SJP Supply-Side: Wealthy liberals/progressives whose bank accounts benefit from an unjust socio-economic system, but whose values and giving proactively try to make system just “There is no such thing as a rich communist!” – Susan Sarandon’s character, The Cradle Will Rock In The Middle: Henry Ford (anti-semite, racist, capitalist) vs. Ford Foundation (funding human rights, racial justice, asset building in disenfranchised communities, etc.) Demand-Side: “People not Profits” – Protest Sign Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    9. Process Paradoxes in Social Justice Philanthropy • In a joint study between William Damon of Stanford University, Howard Gardner of Harvard University and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi of Claremont Graduate University, Paradoxes and Contradictions in Philanthropy fall into four areas: • Strategic Philanthropy • Evaluation • Transparency • Program Officer Involvement • Source: “Contradictions and Paradoxes in Best Practices in Philanthropy” paper presented at AERA, Susan Verducci and William Damon Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    10. Additional Process Paradoxes Five grantmaking strategies that are counterproductive to supporting social justice or social change: • “Sorry, we fund only in the following areas.” • “We don’t get involved in politics” • “We don’t give general support grants” • “We only give one-year grants” • All we need to do is organize” Source: “Why Progressive Foundations Give Too Little To Too Many”, Michael H. Shuman, The Nation, January 1998 Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    11. Additional Process Paradoxes • Funding innovation vs. funding conversation vs. funding scale • Funding projects vs. funding general operating support • Making a few large grants vs. many smaller grants “Contradictions and Paradoxes in Best Practices in Philanthropy” paper presented at AERA, Susan Verducci and William Damon Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    12. Paradoxes in Social Justice Philanthropy Table II Assets of Key Conservative Foundations (in thousands) Lynde and Harry Bradley $461,043 Smith Richardson 427,101 Sarah Scaife 238,653 John M. Olin 121,670 Earhart 75,088 Claude R. Lambe 27,266 JM 20,828 Charles G. Koch 19,080 Carthage 17,305 Phillip M. McKenna 14,151 Henry Salvatori 1,924 David H. Koch 907 Total $1,425,016 Source: The Foundation 1000 and The Guide to U.S. Foundations, Their Trustees, Officers, and Donors, 1997 edition Table I Assets of Key Progressive Foundations (in thousands) MacArthur $3,297,626 Charles Stewart Mott 1,674,871 Chicago Community Trust 781,604 Joyce 674,382 Northwest Area 369,752 Public Welfare 352,067 Bremer 221,000 Charles H. Revson 150,000 Jay & Rose Phillips 129,934 Philadelphia 129,129 Hyams 91,908 Mary Reynolds Babcock 82,343 Total $7,954,616 Source: The Foundation 1000, 1997 edition Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    13. “Social Justice might be thought of as the process through which society can attain a more equitable distribution of power in the political, the economic, and social realms.“ John Hunsacker The National Center for Responsible Philanthropy Social Justice Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    14. Social Justice Movements Efforts by these oppressed groups and their organizational representatives to foster collective and equitable distribution of political, social and economic power. The National Committee for Responsive Philanthropy Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    15. Six Elements that Define Social Justice • Addresses source or root causes of the conditions which philanthropy exists to alleviate. Martin Luther King, Jr. once said, “Philanthropy is commendable, but it must not cause the philanthropist to overlook the economic justice that makes philanthropy necessary.” • Social change philanthropy has some kind of political, economic, and/or social analysis that identifies root causes. • Social change philanthropy seeks a just and equitable society, where the need for charity would be eliminated. • Social change philanthropy aims to improve the life circumstances of people who are most affected by social inequality and injustice. They include low-income communities, sexual minorities, communities of color, indigenous people, and other historically marginalized populations. • Social change philanthropy is directed toward increasing the power held by historically marginalized populations. • Social change philanthropy is carried out through a process that is open, inclusive, and responsive and accountable to grantees and potential grantees. In other words, social change philanthropy is not only about what a funder does, but how it is done in relation to the communities it supports. Susan Ostrander, Tufts University From a talk given to EPIP New England’s Philanthropology 201 Workshop, May 19, 2004 Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    16. Elements of Social Justice The National Committee for Responsive Philanthropy’s definition of Social Justice Philanthropy is based the work of John Rawls (A Theory of Justice and Political Liberalism). Rawls proposes that there are five criteria that must exist for justice to occur: • Basic Liberties • Freedom of movement and free choice of occupation • Access to the power and prerogatives of public office and positions of responsibility • Ability to obtain income and wealth • The social basis of self-respect Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    17. Social Justice Philanthropy Philanthropy engages in Social Justice Movements by supporting : • Individuals • Organizations • Labor Unions • Unincorporated Organizations or Groups This work can look like: • Advocacy and Organizing • Mobilization • Research • Demonstration Projects • Legal Aid and Litigation Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    18. III. HISTORY • National Overview • Southeastern Region Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    19. Something to Consider “The notion that philanthropy, to retain is character, must remain non-controversial represents a fundamental misunderstanding of the institution which not only perverts its historical development, but also destroys is essential values. The most traditional of charitable purposes ordinarily require the acquisition , development, and dissemination of information and ideas, and they are not rendered the less charitable because such information or ideas are disputable and disputed” Albert M. Sacks Source: Social Change in America, Alan Rabinowitz Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    20. History of Social Justice Philanthropy in the U.S. Social Change Philanthropy in the US can be traced back as far as the American Revolutionary War. This type of funding support is also reflected in the development of public education in the United States, the emancipation of slaves and the Civil War, opposition to social Darwinism by the clergy and women’s groups, labor and populist movements and women’s suffrage. For Example: “The Ford Foundation’s excursions into social activism during the 1960’s with its grants to the Congress on Racial Equality, black politicians in Cleveland, black educators in New York’s Ocean Hill-Brownsville district, the Center for Community Change, former members of Robert F. Kennedy’s staff, and several other minority organizing project” Source: Social Change Philanthropy in America, Alan Rabinowitz Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    21. Other Historical Examples • Supporting litigation to desegregate schools in the South • Establishing the American Civil Liberties Union • Establishing the Highlander Folk School (now known as the Highlander Center) • Public education of black children in the South • The creation of a network of family and public foundations during the 1950s-60s (examples include the Stern Fund, Youth Project, New World Foundation, DJB Foundation, and The Funding Exchange) • Black churches, civic societies/associations, and social networks who supported the modern civil rights movement (who paid for Rosa Parks to get out of jail?) Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    22. History of Social Justice Philanthropy in the South • Black Schools built with the assistance of Northern philanthropy represented about a third of the overall value of black school property by 1936 and greatly increased the availability of schools for black children • There had been increasing financial support for the education of southern blacks in the years between the end of the Civil War and the turn of the century, coming mainly from church groups in the north. Those efforts were dwarfed in 1902, however, when John D. Rockefeller established the General Education Board (GEB) and gave it $33 million over the next decade. Several other funds with the same mission were established within the next 15 years. The combined efforts of the church groups and the philanthropists led to the founding of numerous private schools for and mostly staffed by blacks. Their success is evidenced by the precipitous decline in illiteracy among southern blacks in the early years of the twentieth century. • The three most influential philanthropic foundations were the Rosenwald Fund, the Jeanes Fund, and the Slater Fund…..the most important of the philanthropies specifically targeting black public elementary school was the Rosenwald Fund (established in 1917 by Julius Rosenwald, the then president of Sears, Roebuck and Company) Sources: Dangerous Donations: Northern Philanthropy and Southern Black Education, 1902-1930, Eric Anderson and Alfred Moss ; The Schooling of Southern Blacks: The Roles of Legal Activism and Private Philanthropy, John J. Donohue, James Heckman, and Petra E. Todd Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    23. History of Social Justice Philanthropy in the South What about community-based philanthropy ? "One reason little has been written about black philanthropy is that the word philanthropy evokes images of large foundations and wealthy philanthropists, which are scarce in the black community. When one expands the concept to include giving money, goods, and time; blacks emerge as having a strong, substantial philanthropic tradition." Dr. Emmett Carson President, Minneapolis Community Foundation Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    24. Models of Social Justice Philanthropy • Activist-advised or “community-based” public foundations (Liberty Hill, Southern Partners Fund, Fund for Southern Communities, etc.) • Donor advised funds (Tides Foundation) • Family foundations (Babcock, Irene Diamond, and the French American Charitable Trust, DJB foundation) • Corporate foundations and corporate giving programs (Ben and Jerry’s, Cummings Engine Company) • Independent foundations (Ford, Rockefeller foundations) • Giving Circles, NGAAP Fund • Identity-based public foundation (women’s funds and LBGT funds) Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for

    25. What Can You Do to Advance Social Justice Philanthropy? • Continue reflecting on your practice with definitions, history, and case study in mind • Consider Daniel J. Bernstein of the DJB Foundation: “The legal limitations on the uses of tax-exempt funds present continuing obstacles to reform-directed foundations and wealthy individuals. Mr. Bernstein took account of these obstacles early and chose a practical way of dealing with them…..he learned the importance of spending tax-deductible and non tax-deductible money side by side. Foundation money is public money, temporarily at the discretion of semi-public trustees or directors”. The 1974 final annual report of the DJB Foundation Source: Social Change in America, Alan Rabinowitz Prepared by Omisade Billie Burney for