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Contraceptive Attitudes among Female College Students. Kellie D. Bryant RN, DNP Associate Professor SUNY Downstate. Problem: Unintended Pregnancy & Contraception. 60% of pregnancies are unintended Leading causes are lack of contraceptive use and contraceptive failure

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Contraceptive attitudes among female college students l.jpg

Contraceptive Attitudes among Female College Students

Kellie D. Bryant RN, DNP

Associate Professor

SUNY Downstate


Problem unintended pregnancy contraception l.jpg
Problem: Unintended Pregnancy & Contraception

  • 60% of pregnancies are unintended

  • Leading causes are lack of contraceptive use and contraceptive failure

  • 53% of unintended pregnancies could have been avoided if women used contraception


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Highest Teenage Pregnancy Rate

  • US (52.1 births/1000 women 15-19 years)

    2. United Kingdom (30.8 births/1000) second

    Highest teenage births among 28 rich nations.


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Reasons for Lack of Contraceptive Use

  • Misconceptions about contraceptives

  • Negative attitude about contraception

  • Failure to recognize the risk of pregnancy

  • Inability to communicate with their partner about contraceptives

  • Partners disapprove of contraception

  • Worried about side effects


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Barriers to Contraception

  • Cost, substandard health care facilities, childcare issues, and lack of transportation

  • Among Blacks and Hispanics -decreased income, higher rate of unemployment, decreased level of education, and lack of insurance


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Purpose of Study

  • To examine contraceptive attitudes and demographic characteristics of contraceptive users among female college students from three different groups of contraceptive use


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Three Contraceptive Groups

  • “All the time” = Uninterrupted user

  • “Sometimes” = Intermittent contraceptive user

  • “Never” = Contraceptive nonusers


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Importance of Proposed Study

  • Contraceptive use among college students has not been well examined

  • Lack of research on contraceptive use since the development of newer forms of contraceptives


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Importance of Proposed Study

  • Identification of women’s attitudes about contraceptives may help health care providers eliminate some of the barriers and misconceptions regarding contraceptives.

  • Women ages 18-24 have a high rate of unintended pregnancy rate



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Research Questions

  • What are the most commonly used contraceptive methods among female college students?

  • What percentage of female college students are in the 3 groups of contraceptive users: uninterrupted, intermittent, and nonusers?


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Research Questions

  • What are the most common demographic characteristics among the 3 groups (uninterrupted contraceptive users, intermittent contraceptive users, & contraceptive nonusers?

  • What are the contraceptive attitude scores of female college students?


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Research Question

  • Do contraceptive attitude scores of female college students vary by race, age, marital status, and socioeconomic status?

  • Do contraceptive attitude scores vary among uninterrupted contraceptive users, intermittent contraceptive users, and contraceptive nonusers?


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Hypothesis

1. Demographic factors associated with uninterrupted contraceptive use are being married, 24 years of age or older, from a higher socioeconomic status, and White.


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Hypothesis

2. Contraceptive attitude scores will be lowest among females who are Black or Hispanic, less than 24 years of age, unmarried, and from lower socioeconomic levels.


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Hypothesis

3. Contraceptive attitude scores among uninterrupted contraceptive users will be higher than among intermittent contraceptive users and nonusers.



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Design

  • Quantitative, comparative descriptive design

  • Participants categorized by the frequency they use their preferred contraceptive method: 1) Uninterrupted, 2) Intermittent, and 3) non use of contraceptives.


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Setting

  • University located in a highly diverse area of a large metropolitan city on the east coast.

  • 47% black, 15% Hispanic, 25% white, and 13% Asian

  • 72% female

  • Average age of an undergraduate student is 24 years


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Sample Criteria

  • Inclusion criteria - female college student, between the ages of 18 to 44, who can read and speak English and has been sexually active in the past three months

  • Exclusion criteria - females older than 44, younger than 18 years of age, and students who do not speak or read English.


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Sample

  • Convenience, purposive sample N = 120

  • Mean age = 24.2

    Range = 18 to 44 years

  • Racial background : Black (45%),

    White (19.2%), Hispanic (14.2%),

    Asian/Pacific Islander (13.3%).


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Sample

  • Student income: 65.3 % earned <$19,999

  • Marital Status: 12.5% married

  • Religion: 63.4% Christian, 11.7% No Religion

    Classified into 3 groups of contraceptive users: 1) Uninterrupted, 2) Intermittent, 3) Non- user



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Questionnaire

The survey consisted of three questionnaires

  • Contraceptive Attitude Scale

  • Contraceptive Use Tool

  • Demographic Tool

  • Survey took approximately 11 minutes to complete



  • Rq 1 results most commonly used contraceptive methods l.jpg
    RQ 1 Results: Most commonly used contraceptive methods

    • The 5 most preferred methods: male condom (48.2%), pill (22.4%), withdrawal (10.6%), patch (4.7%), and Depo Provera (4.1%).



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    Research Question #3

    • What are the most common demographic characteristics among uninterrupted contraceptive users, intermittent contraceptive users, and contraceptive nonusers?


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    RQ# 3 Results

    • The findings from this study failed to find a relationship between contraceptive use and race, age, socioeconomic level, years of education, or religion

    • May be due to the homogenous sample of students at the University.


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    Research Question #4

    • What are the contraceptive attitude scores of female college students?


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    RQ#4: Results

    • The contraceptive attitude scores for the participants in the study were homogenous.

    • Most participants had a positive attitude.

    • The mean score for the group was 4.1008 out of 5 with a SD of 0.498.


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    Research Question #5

    • Do contraceptive attitude scores of female college students vary by race, age, marital status, and socioeconomic status?


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    RQ # 5 Results

    • Contraceptive attitude scores did not vary by age, race, marital status, and socioeconomic status


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    Research Question #6

    • Do contraceptive attitude scores vary among uninterrupted contraceptive users, intermittent contraceptive users, and contraceptive nonusers?


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    Results among 3 Contraceptive Groups

    • Uninterrupted users scored 0.27 points higher on the contraceptive attitude scale than intermittent users.

    • Uninterrupted users scored 0.45 points higher than nonusers.


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    Contraceptive Attitude Scale

    • Students with higher contraceptive attitude scores were more likely to be consistent contraceptive users.


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    Additional Findings

    • Blacks were more likely to use condoms.

    • Older women less likely to use birth control.

    • Whites more likely to use withdrawal method.

    • Younger students more likely to use condoms.

    • Students with more years of college were more likely to use birth control.


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    Top 5 Reasons for Not using Birth Control

    • Worried about side effects

    • Health concerns

    • Opposed to birth control

    • Partner opposed

    • Want children


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    Woman 35 and Older

    • Women 35 & older were less likely to use birth control

    • May be due to older woman believing they have a small chance of becoming pregnant

    • May be due to increased fear of side effects due to advanced age and the misconception that hormonal methods may negatively affect their health.


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    Younger Woman and Condoms

    • Increased condom use was among younger woman.

    • May be contributed to younger woman being less likely to be married or in a long term monogamous relationship.

    • Younger woman to be more likely to use condoms due to concerns about protection against sexually transmitted infections.



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    What Works???

    • Better contraceptive services;

    • New methods that are more effective and easier to use;

    • Methods with noncontraceptive benefits

    • Making methods available without the need to see a doctor

    • Improved education -


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    Evidence Practice to Decrease Unintended Pregnancies

    • Women considering birth control should receive detailed information - both verbal and written


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    Information to Discuss with Clients

    • Contraceptive efficacy

    • Duration of use

    • Risks and possible side effects

    • Non-contraceptive benefits

    • The procedure for initiation and removal/discontinuation

    • When to seek help while using the method


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    Evidence Based Practice

    • Adequate time during consultations to address contraceptive and broader health issues .

    • Contraceptive and sexual health services in schools to promote and provide the planning, delivery, and evaluation of sex and relationship education.


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    Evidence Based Practice

    • IUD’s , IUS, and implants are more cost effective than the injectable contraceptives

    • Increasing the use of these methods will reduce the number of unintended pregnancies


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    In Reality…

    • No single intervention will make a measurable difference.

    • Providers should concentrate on encouraging correct and consistent use.

    • Frequent follow-up appointments are required .


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    The End

    Questions and Answer