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Judaism and Christianity. History of Judaism. Written in the TaNakh Includes the “Torah” – the first five books of the Bible Makes up the “Old Testament” of the Christian Bible Still very much like the original. Important events. Adam and Eve (temptation) Noah and the flood

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Judaism and Christianity

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history of judaism
History of Judaism
  • Written in the TaNakh
  • Includes the “Torah” – the first five books of the Bible
  • Makes up the “Old Testament” of the Christian Bible
  • Still very much like the original
important events
Important events
  • Adam and Eve (temptation)
  • Noah and the flood
  • Abraham and Isaac
  • Moses and the Exodus (Ten Commandments)
  • Kings of Judea
  • Saul, David, and Solomon
  • Historically accurate
important concepts
Important concepts
  • Monotheistic
  • Covenant (promise/agreement) with God– “Chosen People”
  • Promised Land- called Canaan – present-day Israel and Palestine
  • Concept of a “Messiah”
  • View of God – Caring, but demands obedience; rewards and punishes
  • Many miracles; God dialogues with humans
  • Jews represent an ethnic community and a religion
  • Small number of followers but large role in history
experience of women in israelite society
experience of women in Israelite society
  • Women could not initiate divorce
  • could be punished by death for having extramarital relations
  • Women could not inherit
  • Women were expected to rear the children and work in agriculture, herding, or outside the family for wages.
  • Scattering of people – Jews spread throughout the world, but maintained tight-knit communities
major events from the gospels
Major events (from the Gospels)
  • Jesus born – 4 B.C.E.
  • Becomes preacher – called “Messiah” by followers
  • Performs miracles
  • Emphasizes spiritual equality of poor and women
  • Angers Romans and Jewish establishment (seen as a threat)
  • Crucified on the Cross (rose from dead)
  • Forgiveness of sins through faith in Jesus
  • Where does this information come from?
paul and the spread of christianity
Paul and the Spread of Christianity
  • Paul organizes the Church (emphasizes faith)
  • Missionary voyages
  • Modeled on the Roman govt. structure
  • Many emperors persecuted Christians (and Jews)
  • Nero especially (killed Paul and Peter- became Martyrs)
  • Emperor Constantine converts in 313 C.E.
  • Theodosius makes Christianity the official religion in 392
  • Leads to persecution of paganism
  • Christians said people would not have to follow Jewish law (certain rituals etc.)
  • Converts lower classes before upper
  • Eventually Christianity spreads beyond the Roman Empire
  • Roman Catholic Organization today:
  • 1 Pope
  • 2946 Bishops/Dioceses (Mother churches over parishes)
  • 219,583 Priests/Parishes (Local churches)
organization cont
Organization cont.
  • Decentralized
  • Used Roman public works (roads etc.)
  • Missionary religion- converts
  • Monasteries and monks
    • Poverty, chastity, and obedience
  • Over Pope’s claim to Church authority
  • Pope and Patriarch excommunicated each other (kicked each other out of the Church)
  • Iconoclast Controversy: Byzantine Christians forbade the image of the cross as “idol worship”
  • Byzantine empire converts many “Slavic” people to Christianity- Western Roman church wanted to as well but wasn’t as successful
  • Frankish king
  • Converts to Christianity
  • Allies with pope
  • Crowned Holy Roman Emperor (makes schism worse) 800 C.E.
  • Establishes centers of learning
  • Helps spread Christianity

The Phoenicians

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The Phoenicians

  • Occupied string of cities along the eastern Mediterranean coast.
  • What was the purpose?
  • Find valuable resources
  • (raw materials)
  • Resting place for merchant fleets
  • Maintain a trade monopoly

The Phoenicians

  • What were they famous for?
  • Made glass from sand & purple dye from a tiny sea snail.
  • Invented the alphabet that ours is based on (spread to Greeks and then Romans)