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Concern for Conservation of Biodiversity and protection of Environment – An overview. P. Pushpangadan National Botanical Research Institute (Council of Scientific &Industrial Research), Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow-226001 (November 2005).

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concern for conservation of biodiversity and protection of environment an overview

Concern for Conservation of Biodiversity and protection of Environment – An overview

P. Pushpangadan

National Botanical Research Institute

(Council of Scientific &Industrial Research),

Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow-226001

(November 2005)

slide2

Genesis of the Global Concern on Biodiversity Conservation

  • First discussed in 1972 U. N. Conference at Stockhlom
  • U. N. General Assembly by a resolution on 15th December 1972 established UNEP. .
  • First Governing Council met in 1973 identified Conservation of Nature, Wildlife and Genetic Resources as Priority areas.
  • The World Commission on environment and Development (WCED) was constituted in 1983.
  • WCED submitted its report ‘Our Common Future’ in 1987 called for Conservation of Biodiversity for Sustainable Development.
slide3

Genesis of the Global Concern on Biodiversity Conservation(Contd..)

  • UNEP constituted an ad-hoc. Working Group of Technological and Legal experts to prepare an international legal instrument for conservation and sustainable use of Biodiversity which resulted in ‘CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY’ (CBD).
    • 171 countries signed CBD in June1992 during the Earth summit at Rio de Janeiro.
  • CBD came -into force as an International Law On 29th Dec. 1993.
slide4

Genesis of the Global Concern on Biodiversity Conservation(Contd..)

  • India ratified CBD on 18th February 1994 and came into force from 19th May 1994.
  • 188 countries are now parties to CBD (as on Sep. 2005)
  • World Summit on Sustainable Development, Aug-Sept. 2002 at Johannesburg
slide5

Objectives of CBD

  • Conservation of Biological Diversity
  • Sustainable use of its components
  • Fair and Equitable use of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources
slide6

Biodiversity

  • According to Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), biodiversity is “the variability among all living organisms from all sources, including, interalia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems”.
slide7

Biodiversity

  • Biological diversity is the central tenet of nature, one of its key defining features. Evolution has produced an amazing variety of plants, animals and micro-organisms, intricately interconnected, and worthy of respect and conservation in their own right. Biodiversity is also the basis for the continuous evolution of species. This diversity is also the backbone of human societies and cultures, in terms of the ecological functions it provides and the myriad survival and livelihood it meets.
slide8

Biodiversity

  • The term 'biodiversity' is being taken in its holistic sense, to encompass all levels of biodiversity, ecological and evolutionary processes, including:
    • Natural ecosystems: e.g. forests, grasslands, wetlands, deserts, mountains, coastal and marine areas, including the historical changes taking place in such ecosystems.
    • Wild species and varieties: species of plants, animals, and micro-organisms existing in their natural state and the genetic variation within each of these species.
slide9

Biodiversity

    • Agricultural ecosystems:e.g. farmlands, pastures, capture fisheries, aquaculture, including historical changes in land-use patterns.
    • Domesticated species and varieties:species of crops livestock (including poultry), captive-bred fish, pets, and micro organisms in ex-situ collection and the genetic variation within each of these species.
  • In general we may say that Biodiversity exist at a various levels such asspecies, genetic and habitat
slide10

Biodiversity and Associated Knowledge

  • Biodiversity and the associated local/indigenous knowledge systems (TK) are the special strength of most developing countries like India. Biological Diversity and associated IK provide significant inputs in diverse sectors of economy- agriculture drugs, pharmaceuticals, industrial products. It holds key to long term sustainable development.
slide12

Major events in Geological record

(the cosmic calendarContinue)

slide13

Reasons for Conserving

Biodiversity

  • Ethical
  • Ecological
  • Economic
  • Aesthetic
  • Evolutionary
slide14

Conservation of Biodiversity Strategies &Priorities

IUCN, UNEP & WWF 1980 came out with the first global strategy for Conservation.

This strategy defined conservation as :

"Management of human use of biodiversity so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generation while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generation "

This definition involves two complementary components , ‘Conservation' and sustainability

slide15

Conservation of Biodiversity Strategies &Priorities

  • Primary Goal of World Conservation Strategy is:
  • Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life support systems on which human survival and economic activities depend
  • Preservation of species and genetic diversity
  • Sustainable use of species and ecosystems which support millions of rural communities as well as major industries.
  • Thus a logical strategy for conservation of
  • biodiversity should involve:
  • Protection, preservation, maintenance, exploitation,
  • conservation and sustainable utilization of
  • Biodiversity
slide16

Conservation of Biodiversity Strategies &Priorities (Contd..)

Most widely accepted scientific methods of biodiversity conservation are:

(i)In situ methods & (ii) Ex situ methods In situ conservation

This is being done by effecting protection of Natural habitat(s) as such so as the species or stock of biological communities in their natural state is protected from human intervention e.g. Biosphere reserves, national Parks, wild life sanctuaries, sacred groves or other protected natural ecosystems or on farm agro diversity.

The idea of establishing protected areas & network has been taken a central place in all policy decision process related to biodiversity conservation both at national and international levels

slide17

R&D work on Plant Biodiversity Thrust Areas & Future Strategies

  • Complete survey, inventory, documentation and preparation of digital database along with virtual herbarium
  • Identification of rare, endangered and endemic plants
  • Bioprospecting of biodiversity and selection.
  • Domestication, genetic enhancement and development protocol for cultivation of selected wild plant.
slide18

R&D work on Plant Biodiversity Thrust Areas & Future Strategies (Contd..)

  • Development of package of practices for post harvest management and processing.
  • Development of location specific value added product development from locally available bioresources that convert the local biodiversity into economic wealth & thereby generating gainful mass rural employment and prosperity to the nation.
slide19

Strength of India in Biodiversity

  • Rich in all levels of biodiversity species, genes, habitat.
  • Rich in cultural diversity that generated rich fund of indigenous knowledge systems.
  • Humanity has tapped only a fraction of this nature's vast genetic library.
  • Over 70-80% genetic resources of India an other South Asian countries are hitherto untapped.
  • Excellent opportunity for hunting novel genes, drugs, pharmaceuticals, new chemicals / raw materials for new industrial ventures.
slide20

Action Programme

  • Important points that the biodiversity rich third world nations should undertake:
  • Complete inventory & documentation of all Biological resources including the microorganisms
  • Identify- rare, endemic and endangered status of spp. , if any.
  • Check list/database of the floristic wealth of the nation along with the
  • associated knowledge system
  • Ground check to know the actual situation and identify the gaps:
slide21

Action Programme (Contd..)

  • Study- genetic diversity, distribution pattern, association pattern and gradients
  • Prepare - passport data of all important and endemic biodiversity passport data should cover morphological cytological chemical and molecular level (DNA/gene level) information so as to prevent loss of genetic diversity and biopiracy.
  • Identification of problems and solutions in conservation, threatened status of species, ecosystems -with causes of threats.
  • Identification of problems and solutions in conservation.