Before We Get Started: • This is it! You have reached the end of the text! • The AP focus for this chapter is global business, migrations, and culture. • These are big issues in the world today and they are included in the AP Exam.
A Global Economy • Since the collapse of the communism in 1990, a new economic order has been organizing around expansion of trade, global investing, privatization of state economies and deregulation of businesses. • Modern technology in the form of computers, the internet, satellites, fiber optics and semiconductors have eliminated national borders and made global business possible.
The Global Economic • Economic Globalization • Free Trade • Means that trade occurs without any constraints on it by border or state-imposed limits. • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and the World Trade Organization made free trade possible • Global Corporations • Global Corporations replaced multinational corporations where business sites operated under the laws of each country. • Means that a corporation has a small headquarters staff making decision with multiple sites around producing its products
The Global Economy • Economic Growth in Asia • Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan all experienced economic growth following WWII as their lack of natural resources was supplemented by their abundant labor forces. • China eventually joined as well.
The Global Economy • Trading Blocs • Groups of nations have joined together to gain more advantages in the marketplace • The European Union, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Cross-Cultural Exchanges and Global Communications • While the fall of the Berlin Wall represents a specific example of the disappearance of borders, the process started happening long before that with the erasure of cultural borders brought on by television and consumer products like Coca-Cola. • The local traditions of the early twentieth century have been augmented and sometimes replaced by global culture. • Global Barbie (Example) • Versions of Barbie appear in different versions all around the world.
Cross-Cultural Exchanges and Global Communications • Consumption and Cultural Interaction • As industrialization mass-produced products in the nineteenth century, consumption increased. • In the latter part of the twentieth century, consumption became cross cultural and went beyond necessities as products became an expression of personality and inclusion in the world cultural scene. • Example • People all around the world eat at McDonalds • Coca-Cola is an international product
Cross-Cultural Exchanges and Global Communications • The Age of Access • From the nineteenth century’s communications inventions of the telegraph and telephone, the twentieth century had an explosion of communications technology • Radio • Television • Fax Machines • Networked Computers • Satellite Dishes • All changed the way in which the world communicated, but the cost of the new communication meant that the impoverished regions of the world fell even further behind.
Global Problems • Nations are struggling by themselves or in partnerships with not-so-new issues such as coerced labor, poverty, epidemic diseases, terrorism, and human rights. • Population Pressures and Environmental Degradation • Enormous population increases since the nineteenth century due to improvements in sanitation, food crops, and disease control are now a large global problem. • Puts tremendous pressure on the world’s resources • Global warming and other environmental issues • Population control • Example – China has a one-child policy.
Global Problems • Economic inequities and Labor Servitude • Developing areas of the globe have appalling rates of poverty where malnutrition and starvation are common. • Labor servitude similar to slavery is a feature of many poor regions • Child labor is particularly abusive in south and southeast Asia • Human Trafficking • Modern Slavery in which people are bought and sold across international borders and within national borders as well.
Global Problems • Global Diseases • Since the advent of inoculations and antibiotics, it had appeared that the world was on the road to eradication of the diseases that had plagued human society forever. • AIDS • Caused by the HIV • First observed in 1981 • Epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa • Tens of Millions of deaths • Orphans and social disorder • Lack of medicine
Adults and children estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS as of December 2003
Global Problems • Global Terrorism • Terrorism has been used throughout world history, but in the modern world of swift and easy travel and communications, it has become an international scourge. • Improved weaponry and mass media give terrorists the ability to make a bigger statement with more effect. • During the last decades of the twentieth century, terrorist groups launched global terror campaigns. • International response has been neither coordinated nor effective • Examples of Terrorism • 9/11 – al-Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden • Lead to conflicts and Afghanistan and Iraq • Iraq – Contention that Saddam Hussein harbored terrorists and had amassed nuclear and chemical weapons.
Global Problems • Coping with Global Problems: International Organizations • Nongovernmental organizations – Have been developed to address significant issues that cross borders. • Geneva Conventions – Protects the rights of wounded and prisoners of war. • Red Cross – Aid victims of disaster • Greenpeace – Environmental group dedicated to confronting and stopping whalers • United Nations
Crossing Boundaries • International forces have transformed the world’s populations with greater equality for women and mass migrations of workers. In essence, the boundaries between men and women have been crossed as have traditional national borders. • Women’s Traditions and Feminist Challenges • After WWII, the momentum for women’s equality gained speed as women got increased access to jobs, suffrage, and equal rights. • Occurred much faster in industrialized nations than developing nations but changes have been instituted in most nations. • Still significant challenges • Girl infanticide in China • Dowry Deaths in India • Honor Slayings in some Islamic Societies
Crossing Boundaries • Migration – Humans have always migrated, but around the time of industrialization, demographers have distinguished between tow types of migration, internal migration and external or international migration. • Internal Migration – Migrations within national borders • External Migration – Migrations across national borders • Push factors – Lack of resources, overpopulation, and prejudice • Pull factors – Abundant natural resources, job openings, and freedom from oppression.
Crossing Boundaries • Cross-Cultural Travelers • International tourism • Growing for the past century and a half. • Tourism is the largest industry on earth employing over 225 million people.