Introduction to criminal forensic science
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Introduction to Criminal Forensic Science. Define and distinguish forensic science from other sciences Give a brief history of forensic science Describe the services of a typical crime lab Explain the role and responsibility of the expert witness. Objectives.

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What is forensic science

  • The application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police in the criminal justice system.

  • Helps supply accurate and objective information that reflects events that have occurred at the crime scene

What is Forensic Science?

Literary influences

Literary Influences

Historical people and contributions

  • Mathieu Orfila: established forensic toxicology as a legit science (father of forensic toxicology)

  • Alphonse Bertillon: developed first system of personal identification based on a series of body measurements

  • Francis Galton: first definitive study of fingerprints and developed a system for classifying them

  • Karl Landsteiner: discovered that blood can be classified into groups later recognized as types A, B, AB, and O

  • Leone Lattes: developed a procedure for determining blood group of a dried blood stain

Historical People and Contributions

  • Calvin Goddard: comparison studies with bullets using a comparison microscope

  • Albert S. Osborn: principles of document examination and the acceptance of documents as scientific evidence

  • Hans Gross: described the application of scientific disciplines to criminal investigation

  • Edmond Locard: “Locard’s Exchange Principle”; whenever two objects come with one another, there is an exchange or cross-transfer of materials between them

Crime laboratories

Crime Laboratories

International crime laboratories

  • Great Britain: national system of regional laboratories under jurisdiction of Home Office

  • (not independent labs like in U.S.)

    • Metropolitan Police Lab (London)

    • Uses a fee for service model

  • Canada: 3 institutes (government funded)

    • Royal Canadian Mounted Police region lab

    • Centre of Forensic Sciences in Toronto

    • Institute of Legal Medicine and Police Science in Montreal

International Crime Laboratories

Types of crime laboratories

State /Local under jurisdiction of Home Office


FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation in Quantico, Va.)

The Drug Enforcement Administration labs (DEA) of the Department of Justice

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) of the Departmen of Justice

U.S. Postal Service Inspection Service

  • N.C. State Bureau of Investigation (SBI)

  • South Carolina law Enforcement Division (SLED)

  • Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department Crime lab

Types of Crime Laboratories

Services provided by crime labs

Basic under jurisdiction of Home Office

Optional Services

Toxicology: determines presence or absence of drugs in body fluids and tissues

Latent fingerprint identification

Polygraph unit (lie detector tests)

Voiceprint analysis (voice comparison, text to speech)

Crime scene investigation unit (group of trained technicians)

  • Physical science unit: chemical testing of evidence

  • Biology unit: identify and perform DNA profiling, hair and fiber analysis, other biological materials

  • Firearms: ballistics tests, gun powder residue tests

  • Document examination

  • Photography unit

Services provided by Crime labs

Duties of a forensic scientist

  • Analysis of physical evidence under jurisdiction of Home Office

    • Collect and preserve all evidence according to procedures

    • Testing of evidence

    • Maintaining chain of custody

    • Use underlying principles of scientific method to ensure that the outcome of an investigation is not tainted by human emotion or compromised by ignoring contrary evidence

    • Maintain perspective/limit bias/go where the evidence leads

Duties of a Forensic Scientist

Admissibility of evidence

  • Frye vs. United States under jurisdiction of Home Office

    • Court must decide whether the questioned procedure, technique, or principle is generally accepted by a meaningful segment of the relevant scientific community

    • (called the Frye standard)

    • This was historically the challenge to the admissibility of the polygraph (lie detector) test

  • Federal Rules of Evidence (Rule 702) governs admissibility of all evidence including expert testimony

Admissibility of Evidence

Judging the evidence

  • 1993: under jurisdiction of Home OfficeDaubert vs. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Case asserted that Frye standard or general acceptance is not an absolute prerequisite to the admissibility of scientific evidence under the Federal Rules of Evidence

  • 1999: Kumho Tire Co., Ltd. Vs. Carmichael: trial judge determines the admissibility of scientific testimony as well as all expert testimony

Judging the Evidence

  • Has the technique or theory been tested? under jurisdiction of Home Office

  • Has the technique or theory been subject to peer review and publication?

  • What is the technique’s rate of error?

  • Is there documentation of the existence and maintenance of standards controlling the techniques operation

  • Is the technique or theory widely accepted within a relevant scientific community

What is expert testimony

Expert Testimony under jurisdiction of Home Office

Testimony: must be factual

Must be from personal knowledge (not hearsay)

Expert cannot render any view with absolute certainty

May offer opinion based on evidence/testing

Only advocate the TRUTH.

  • Expert witness: individual whom the court determines to possess knowledge relevant to the trial that is not expected of the average layperson

  • Competence: experience, education, professional memberships, published work

What is expert testimony?

Other areas of service

  • Forensic Psychiatry under jurisdiction of Home Office

  • Forensic Odontology

  • Forensic Engineering

  • Forensic computer and digital analysis

Other Areas of Service