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Tallinn University of Technology. Introduction to Astronautics Sissejuhatus kosmonautikasse. Vladislav Pust õnski 20 09 – 201 2. Main goals of Astronautics and ways to space. Role of Astronautics in the modern life No Astronautics means:

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main goals of astronautics and ways to space
Main goals of Astronautics andways to space
  • Role of Astronautics in the modern life

No Astronautics means:

      • Back to global cable relay, decrease of speed and deterioration of quality of TV broadcast, Internet etc.
      • No global navigation and positioning (no GPS etc.)
      • Degradation of weather forecast and mapping
      • Limited research of the upper atmosphere, solar activity etc.
      • Deterioration of military reconnaissance, no precise guidance of missiles etc.
      • Degradation of space science: no space telescopes, no in situ research throughout the Solar System, particles and fields, no precise physical experiments, no biological experiments in space
      • No manned spaceflights: no International Space Station, no Moon nor planetary missions
slide3
Main types of spacecraft
    • Satellites for practical applications:
      • Radio relay (TV broadcast, Internet etc.)
      • Global navigation and positioning (GPS etc.)
      • Earth observations (weather forecast, mapping, global and local changes)
      • Applied science (research of the upper atmosphere, solar activity, radiation etc.)
      • Military (reconnaissance, positioning, guidance of missiles etc.)
    • Astronomy, physical and other sciences:
      • Space telescopes (optical, IR, UV, , X-ray etc.)
      • Solar System missions (Moon and planetary missions, missions to comets, asteroids etc.)
      • Research of particles and fields, spacecraft for verification of physical theories
      • Biological experiments
    • Manned space flights:
      • Experiments in space and servicing of unmanned spacecraft
      • The Space Station, long-term living in space
      • Manned missions to the Moon and the planets
example satellites and spacecraft
Example satellites and spacecraft

Navstar GPS satellite

Sputnik-3

USSR research satellite

Telstar communication satellite

GOES-8 weather satellite

Mir Space Station

Apollo-16 Lunar Module and LRV

Hubble space telescope

Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn

alternative ways to space
Alternative ways to space
  • Tasks:use cheaper alternative methods to reach space (mostly Low Earth Orbit)
  • Possible with current technology:
    • Space gun
    • Electromagnetic catapult
    • Space plane
    • Ramjet/scramjet
  • Need for advanced technology or new materials with still unavailable properties:
    • Space tower
    • Space elevators (mostly constructions based on tethers)
    • Momentum exchange tethers (rotovators)
    • Laser propulsion
rocket as launch vehicle
Rocket as launch vehicle
  • Fact:rocket propulsion is currently the only way to space
  • Old and new
  • Small and large
  • From ground, water & air
  • Reliable, but sometimes fail
communication satellites
Communication satellites
  • Tasks:telephony, TV, radio, Internet, fixed services, other communication issues (i.e. communication with ISS etc.)
  • Passive satellites:
    • Echo 1A:August 12, 1960, ~30 m inflated reflecting sphere. First communication satellite
  • Active satellites:
    • Telstar 1/2:July 10, 1962, ~1 m sphere, ~80 kg. First active communication satellite (also first privately sponsored satellite). Elliptical orbit, P~2.5h, availability ~20 min/orbit
    • Syncom 2:July 26, 1963, first operational geosynchronous satellite (height of orbit ~ 36 000 km, P = 24h, i ~ 33º)
    • Syncom 3:August19, 1964, first geostationary satellite (height of orbit ~ 36 000 km, P = 24h, i ~ 0º)
    • Molniya-1:April 23, 1965. First soviet communication satellite. Highly elliptical orbit, apogee ~ 40 000 km, P ~ 12h, i ~ 63º, availability ~ 10 hours/2 orbits
navigation satellites
Navigation satellites
  • Tasks:navigation, positioning, time transfer, mapping, geographical & geophysical sciences, search, tracking and rescue, location-based media
  • Early era:
    • Transit 1B:April 13, 1960. System entered service in 1964. Polar orbits, accuracy ~200 m
    • Kosmos-1000:March 31, 1978. Russian “Tsykada” navigation system
  • Modern systems:
    • GPS:24 satellites in 6 orbital planes (plus reserve). 1978, first experimental satellite (Block-I)
    • GLONASS:24 satellites in 3 orbital planes. 1982, first operational satellite. 1995 – 24 satellites, now again 24.
    • Galileo:30 satellites in 3 orbital planes. 2005, first esperimental satellite (GIOVE-A)
weather satellites
Weather satellites
  • Tasks:weather forecast, climate changes, pollution, prediction of catastrophic events (storms, typhoons etc.), long-term & short-term changes (ocean level, deserts areas, volcanoes, vegetation, snow etc.)
  • Early era:
    • TIROS I:April 1, 1960. First successful weather satellite
    • Kosmos-122:1966. The first USSR dedicated weather satellite
  • Later and present systems:
    • USA:GOES
    • Europe:Meteosat
    • USSR/Russia:Meteor, Meteor-M
    • China:Fengyun
    • Japan:MTSAT-1R
  • Weather satellites are mostly on geostationary or polar orbits
research satellites
Research satellites
  • Tasks:research of atmosphere, the Sun, particles, fields, verification of physical theories, biological experiments and many more
  • Early era:
    • Sputnik-2:November 3, 1957. The first animal in space
    • Explorer 1:February 1, 1958. Research of space in different heights, van Allen belts discovered. First USA satellite
  • Later noticible missions:

Explorer series, Orbital Geophysical Observatory (OGO) satellites (USA), Proton satellites (USSR heavy satellites launched by 2-stage version of Proton rocket)

3. Today’s outstanding missions

    • Gravity Probe B:Space experiment for verification of the general theory of relativity (2004 – 2005, data is still being analyzed)
    • Planck satellite:ESA space experiment to study anisotropies of cosmic microwave background (2009).
space telescopes
Space telescopes
  • Tasks:observations of fields and particles free of influence of the Earth’s atmosphere
  • Early era:
    • OAO:3 satellites 1968 – 81, prominent UV and X-ray space observatories
    • Uhuru:1970-73, famous X-ray observatory
  • Great Observatories:
    • Hubble Space Telescope (HST):launched 1990. Optical, UV, near IR. Still in service
    • Compton -Ray Observatory:1991 – 2000
    • Chandra X-Ray Observatory:1999 –
    • Spitzer Space Telescope:2003 – , IR-telescope
  • Recent & future missions:
    • Kepler mission:2009. Exoplanets search through detection of stellar transits
    • Hershel Space Observatory:2009,ESA mission, IR & sub-mm
    • James Webb Space Telescope:2018 (?). IR telescope in the L2 point
solar system missions
Solar System missions
  • Tasks:probes to the Moon, the planets, their satellites, comets, asteroids
  • Early era:
    • Luna-1:January 2, 1959, the first solar satellite (gained the escape velocity)
    • Luna-2:September 12, 1959, first reached the Moon (Sep. 14)
    • Luna-3:October 4, 1959, first photographed the far side of the Moon
    • Mariner 4:First Mars fly-by, first close photos of Mars (Jul. 1965)
    • Venera-3: First reached the planet (Mar. 1965)
    • Luna-9: First lunar soft landing Feb. 6, 1966, first Moon panoramas
    • Luna-17: First automatic rover Lunokhod, 1970 – 71
    • Pioneer 10/11: First Jupiter & Saturn fly-byes (1973, 1979), close-up images
  • Later outstanding missions:
    • Voyager 1/2:great planets fly-byes (Uranus 1986, Neptune 1989)
    • Viking 1/2: First Mars landers & orbiters, 1975 – 80
    • Magellan:Venus high-resolution mapping, 1990 – 94
    • Galileo:Jupiter orbiter & atmospheric probe, 1995 – 2003
    • Mars Exploration Rovers:Twin martian rovers mission, 2004 –
    • Cassini/Huygens:Saturn orbiter & Titan probe, 2004 –
manned orbital spacecraft
Manned orbital spacecraft
  • Tasks:provide flights of human beings to Low Earth Orbit, their long-term stay and work
  • Early era:
    • Vostok-1:April 12, 1961, first human to space, Yu.Gagarin
    • Voskhod:October 12, 1964, first spacecraft for more than one men
    • Voskhod-2:March 18, 1965, first spacewalk (A.Leonov)
    • Gemini VIII:March 1966, first docking
    • Soyuz-1:April 1967, first disaster and casualty (at landing), V.Komarov
    • Salyut:1971, first space station
  • New age:
    • Space Shuttle:1981 – 2011, first reusable space winged vehicle
    • Mir:1986 – 2001, first modular consistently inhabited space station
    • International Space Station (ISS):1998 –
manned moon and planetary missions
Manned Moon and planetary missions
  • Tasks:flights of human beings to the Moon and the planets
  • Moon race, 1961- mid 1970’s:
    • May 25, 1961, Kennedy speech that started the Moon race
    • Apollo 8:December, 1968, first human beings on the lunar orbit
    • Apollo 11:July, 21, 1969, first lunar walk (N.Armstrong)
    • Apollo 13:April 1970, serious failure in the deep space, emergency return without landing
    • Apollo 15:1971, first car on the Moon
    • mid 1960’s – mid. 1970’s, USSR program (failed)
  • Future plans:
    • ISS:till 2020
    • Next generation expendable manned spacecraft and heavy launch vehicles, possible return to the Moon or visits to asteroids (uncertain)
    • Beyond 2030: Mars exploration with manned vehicles
syncom 3 geostationary communication satellite

Syncom 3 geostationary communication satellite

Geostatinonary orbit and Molniya orbit

Syncom 3

first geostationary satellite

tiros i weather satellite

TIROS I weather satellite

First TV picture from space

TIROS I launch

sputnik 2 satellite

Sputnik-2 satellite

Layka inside sealed container

Model of Sputnik-2

luna 3 moon probe

Luna-3 Moon probe

One of the first photos of the far side of the Moon

Luna-3

mars exploration rovers

Mars Exploration Rovers

Martian panorama;

landing platform

MER, artistic concept

vostok manned spaceship

Vostok manned spaceship

Gagarin’s reentry capsule

Schematic representation of Vostok spaceship and its launch vehicle

space shuttle

Space Shuttle

Space Shuttle landing after the first orbital flight

Space Shuttle Columbia inauguration launch

apollo program

Apollo program

Apollo CSM on the lunar orbit

Apollo 11 Lunar Module on the Moon (Buzz Oldrin is in front)

soviet lunar program

Soviet lunar program

Moon fly-by spaceships Zond

N1 rocket launch

space gun

Advantages:

  • Launch is very cheap
  • Problems:
  • High acceleration
  • Atmospheric drag
  • Need for upper stage
  • Historical background:
  • HARP
  • 16 inch gun, barrel 40 m, projectile
  • 180 kg, velocity 3,6 km/s, altitude 180 km
  • Project Babylon
  • Gerald Bull supergun project for
  • Iraq, parameters uncertain

Space gun

Columbiad of

Jules Vern

HARP gun shot

electromagnetic catapult mass driver

Advantages:

  • Launch is very cheap
  • Enables moderate acceletations
  • May be useful on small planets to propel small objects
  • Problems:
  • Even high accelerations on the Earth
  • Atmospheric drag
  • Massive bearing structure
  • Historical background:
  • Mass Driver 1
  • Prototype built by students in MIT,
  • 1976 – 77

Electromagnetic catapult (mass driver)

Electromagnetic catapult

for launch from the Moon

(artist’s conception)

space plane

Advantages:

  • No oxidizer onboard needed
  • Aerodynamic forces available
  • Lower thrust is sufficient for start
  • Problems:
  • Extra weight of wings
  • High aerodynamic drag
  • Complexity of engines
  • Harsh flight environment
  • Historical background:
  • X-20 Dyna-Soar
  • Rocket-launched space plane. Weight
  • ~5 tons 1957 – 63
  • HOTOL
  • British government call, several tons to
  • orbit, 1986 – 88
  • VentureStar/X-33 (prototype)
  • NASA call, Lockheed Martin project.
  • Mass ~130 tons. Cancelled 2001

Space plane

Mock-up of Dyna-Soar

X-33 artist’s concept

ramjet scramjet

Advantages:

  • No oxidizer onboard needed
  • Problems:
  • Nonoperational at low velocities
  • Orbital velocity inachievable
  • Low trust-weight ratio
  • High cost
  • Historical background:
  • X-30
  • DARP call. McDonnel Douglas,
  • Rocketdyne etc. project, mid 1980 – 93
  • HyShot
  • University of Queensland, Australia, 2002.
  • First scramjet tests, rocket-launched engine
  • X-43
  • X-43A scramjet launched by Pegasus
  • rocket, 2004. Glider 3,7 m long, ~1400 kg.
  • 3,4 km/s achieved

Ramjet/scramjet

Scramjet engine

X-43A attached to Pegasus

exotic launch systems proposals

Exotic launch systems (proposals)

Rotovator

Space elevator

Laser propulsion, artist’s concept

old rockets and new rockets

Old rockets and new rockets

Launch of Delta IV Heavy

Soviet R-7 ICBM

small rockets and large rockets

Small rockets and large rockets

Saturn V, Energia, R-7, Vanguard

ground water air launches

Ground, water & air launches

Zenit-3SL sea launch

Odyssey Launch Platform, Pacific

Proton-K ground launch

Baikonur

Pegasus before its air launch

aboard Lockheed L-1011 plane