Chapter 11: Adolescence Case Study:Teenage Employees Around the World Section 1:Physical Development Section 2:Social Development Section 3:Identity Formation Section 4:Challenges of Adolescence Simulation: Applying What You’ve Learned
Teens Around the World Teens in the United States • Young people are following job opportunities to urban areas and more industrialized countries. • 16 percent of all children between five and fourteen years old were active in their countries’ economies in 2004. • Many teens work in addition to going to school. • Today employment is more common among middle-class teenagers. • Working can have negative effects on teens. Case Study: Teenage Employees Around the World Working and the problems that can come with a job are among the challenges facing adolescents today.
What do you think? • How has adolescent employment changed in the United States? • Do you think the benefits of teens working long hours during the school year outweigh the disadvantages? Why or why not?
Section 1 at a Glance • Physical Development • During the adolescent growth spurt, which lasts two or three years, the average teenager grows 8 to 12 inches in height. • Many physical changes take place during adolescence. • Maturation rates vary among adolescents.
Physical Development Main Idea Adolescence is a time of great change, especially in terms of physical development. • Reading Focus • What are the three age category labels between childhood and adulthood? • What is the adolescent growth spurt? • What does sexual development encompass? • What differences in maturation rates occur among adolescents?
From Child to Adult • In Western societies today, the status and duties of adulthood have been delayed. • Today adolescence is subdivided into three age categories. • Early adolescence (11 through 14) • Middle adolescence (15 through 18) • Late adolescence (18 through 21)
Reading Check Recall What are the years of the three age categories of adolescence? Answer: early adolescence—11 through 14; middle adolescence—15 through 18; late adolescence—18 through 21
Differences Between Boys and Girls The Awkward Age • Girls typically begin the adolescent growth spurt earlier than boys. • During middle adolescence most boys grow taller than their female counterparts. • The exact time when this growth will occur for any adolescent is difficult to predict. • Some teenagers may feel they look awkward, but they actually tend to be well coordinated during adolescence. • Proper nutrition is important during the adolescent years. The Adolescent Growth Spurt The adolescent growth spurt usually lasts two or three years. During this period, most adolescents grow 8 to 12 inches in height.
Reading Check Define What is the awkward age? Answer: the period of sudden growth during adolescence
Changes in Males Changes in Females • Increased output of testosterone causes boys’ sexual organs to grow, their voices to deepen, and their body hair to grow. • During this period, boys also develop broader shoulders, more muscle tissue, and larger hearts and lungs. • In girls, increased estrogen spurs the growth of breast tissue. The pelvic region also widens. • The cyclical production of estrogen regulates the menstrual cycle. The first cycle is called menarche. Sexual Development Adolescence begins with puberty, which refers to specific developmental changes that lead to the ability to reproduce. During puberty, adolescents develop primary sex characteristics and secondary sex characteristics.
Reading Check Recall What are primary sex characteristics? Answer: characteristics directly involved in reproduction
Differences in Maturation Rates • Some adolescents reach physical maturity at a relatively early age, while others reach it later. • Early-maturing boys may have advantages over their peers who develop later, but these advantages seem to fade over time. • Girls who mature early may feel awkward. • Once their peers catch up to them, the issue of differences in maturity generally disappears.
Reading Check Find the Main Idea What happens to the advantages of early maturation? Answer: They fade over time.
Current Research in Psychology The Adolescent Brain The adolescent brain is a work in progress. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have shown that the teenage brain continues to grow and develop through the teen years. With MRIs, researchers can see how the brain really works. They can see what parts of the brain use energy when performing a particular task. • Dr. Jay Gledd’s MRI studies have confirmed that young people’s brains are not fully developed until they reach their early twenties (Gledd et al., 2008) • Late development of the prefrontal cortex is one factor in teens’ relatively high rates of injury and accident (Casey et al., 2008) • Gledd’s studies help to explain why adolescents and young adults engage in riskier behavior than other people. • Some of these behaviors may have as much to do with brain development as with the hormonal changes of puberty.
Thinking Critically • Why do adolescents sometimes make unwise decisions? • What are some of the areas in which you think adolescents should be able to make their own decisions and judgments, based on what you have just read about brain development, impulse control, and risky behavior in adolescents?
Section 2 at a Glance • Social Development • Adolescents typically experience a great deal of stress during their teen years, due both to biological and psychological causes. • Relationships with parents change during adolescence. • Adolescents turn increasingly to their peers for support during adolescence.
Social Development Main Idea Adolescence is a challenging time during which teenagers must learn new social skills and ways of interacting with others. • Reading Focus • What two factors make adolescence a time of stress and storm? • What is the main reason that relationships with parents change during adolescence? • Why are relationships with peers so important to adolescents?
Storm and Stress • Biology and Adolescence • Research suggests that hormonal changes of adolescence affect activity levels, mood swings, and aggressive tendencies of many adolescents. • However, contemporary studies suggest that cultural and social influences may have more of an effect on adolescent behavior than hormones do. • Psychology and Adolescence • Psychologically, adolescence ends when people become adults and take on adult responsibilities. • How long adolescence lasts varies with each individual. • Most teenagers face the many challenges of adolescence and cope with them successfully.
Reading Check Define What do the German words Sturm und Drang mean? Answer: storm and stress
Relationships with Parents • The Quest for Independence • The adolescent quest for independence from parents may result in conflicts and less time spent with family, greater emotional attachment to people outside the family, and more activities outside the home. • A Lasting Bond • Adolescents who feel close to their parents tend to show greater self-reliance and independence than those who are distant from their parents. • Parents and adolescents usually share similar views. • Adolescents tend to interact with their mothers more than with their fathers.
Reading Check Summarize Why do adolescents often spend less time with their families? Answer: They want to be more independent, they become emotionally attached to people outside their family, and they become involved in more activities outside the home.
Relationships with Peers • Adolescent Friendships • Friendship is a very important part of adolescence. • Adolescents value loyalty as a key aspect of friendship. • Adolescents usually choose friends who are similar to themselves in age, background, educational goals, and attitudes toward drinking, drug use, and sexual activity. • Cliques and Crowds • Cliques are peer groups of 5 to 10 people who spend a great deal of time together. • Larger groups of people who do not spend as much time together but share attitudes and group identity are called crowds.
Peer Influences • Parental and peer influences often coincide. • Nevertheless, adolescents are influenced by their parents and peers in different ways. • Peer pressure increases in middle adolescence and then decreases after the age of 17. • Dating and Romantic Relationships • In younger adolescents, dating relationships tend to be casual and short-lived. • In later adolescence, relationships tend to be more stable and committed.
Reading Check Summarize How do relationships with peers change during adolescence? Answer: it is weak in early adolescence, increases in middle adolescence, then decreases in late adolescence
Section 3 at a Glance • Identity Formation • One of the main psychological tasks of adolescence is finding an identity—a sense of who one is and what one stands for. • There are four categories of adolescent identity status. • Issues of gender and ethnicity play a major role in the formation of identity.
Identity Formation Main Idea One of the main tasks of adolescence is the search for identity. • Reading Focus • How do psychologists view identity development? • What is identity status? • What roles do gender and ethnicity play in identity formation?
How did one young man's experiences have a positive impact on his identity?
Identity Development • Psychologist Erik Erikson maintained that the main task of the adolescent stage is the search for identity. • Erikson believed the task is accomplished by choosing and developing a commitment to a particular role or occupation in life. • Adolescents may experiment with different values, beliefs, roles, and relationships. • Adolescent identity is achieved when different “selves” are brought together into a unified sense of self. • An identity crisis is a key aspect of adolescent identity development. • An identity crisis is a turning point in a person’s development when the person examines his or her values and makes or changes decisions about life roles.
Reading Check Recall According to Erikson, what is the main task of the adolescent stage of development? Answer: the search for identity
Identity Status • Identity Moratorium • Adolescents experiencing the identity status known as identity moratorium delay making commitments about important questions. • Identity Foreclosure • To avoid an identity crisis, adolescents in the identity foreclosure category make a commitment that forecloses, or shuts out, other possibilities. • Identity Diffusion • Adolescents in identity diffusion seem to be constantly searching for meaning in life because they have not committed themselves to a set of personal beliefs or an occupational path. • Identity Achievement • Adolescents in the identity achievement category have coped with crises, explored options, committed themselves to occupational directions, and made decisions about key life questions.
Reading Check Summarize What is an identity moratorium? Answer: an identity status category in which adolescents delay making commitments about important questions
Gender and Ethnicity in Identity Formation • Gender and Identity Formation • Research shows that female adolescents are now more apt to approach identity formation like male adolescents. • Female adolescents do, however, express more concern about the challenge of balancing work life and family life. • Ethnicity and Identity Formation • Identity formation is often more complicated for adolescents from ethnic minority groups. • Prejudice and discrimination can be contributing factors.
Reading Check Compare and Contrast For which group of adolescents is identity formation especially complicated? Answer: ethnic minority groups
Cultural Diversity and Psychology Rites of Passage A rite of passage marks a person’s entrance into a new stage of life. These ceremonies include baptisms, graduations, and marriages. For many people around the world, various rites such as school graduations and weddings signify the end of one period of life and the beginning of another. • Most rites of passage have three stages: a separation stage, a transitional stage, and a completion stage. • Graduation ceremonies are an example of a rite of passage in which individuals participate as a group. • The quinceañera is an example of a rite of passage for Hispanic girls. • Jewish adolescents enter into the adult religious community with bar mitzvahs and bat mitzvahs. • Genpuku was an ancient rite of passage in Japan. Poy Sang Long is a rite of passage among the Shan people of Myanmar and Thailand.
Thinking Critically • Besides the examples mentioned above, what are some other rites of passage for adolescents in the United States? • How do these rites of passage help in the process of identity formation?
Section 4 at a Glance • Challenges of Adolescence • Adolescents face many challenges during their teen years. • Eating disorders can be one of the big problems of adolescence. • Substance abuse can cause many diseases. • Many issues surround adolescent sexuality.
Challenges of Adolescence Main Idea Adolescence is a difficult time for most teenagers, with concerns about friendships, jobs, future careers, and body image among their many challenges. • Reading Focus • Why is adolescence a difficult time? • What eating disorders affect adolescents? • How can substance abuse be a challenge for adolescents? • What issues surround adolescent sexuality? • How does crime affect adolescents?
A Difficult Time • Adolescence can be a difficult time for some teens. • Challenges of adolescence can include: • School problems • Family problems • Loneliness • Feelings of low self-esteem • Concerns about the future • Eating disorders • Alcohol abuse • Drug abuse