Ecosystems and Communities. Ch. 4. Weather is the day-to-day condition of the Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place. Climate is the typical weather pattern over time in an area. (avg. year around temperature) .
Climate is the typical weather pattern over time in an area. (avg. year around temperature)
Ecosystems can change with climate changes. Hot, cold, rainy, sunny. (1.40b)
Can you think of any examples where ecosystems have changed with the environment?Weather and Climate
Greenhouse effect is the natural situation in which heat is retained by the layer of greenhouse gases.Greenhouse Effect- trapping of heat in the atmosphere
Thining increases the exposure to UV radiation, increasing cataracts and skin cancer and reduce crop supply. It may decrease resistance to disease.
Causes of thining:
CFC’s (chloroflorocarbons are ordorless, noncorrosive compounds that were once used as proprellants in aerosol cans and in production of plastic foam, coolants in air conditions, refrigerators and freezers.Ozone Layer
Much of the sunlight that hits the surface of our planet is converted into heat energy and then radiated back into the atmosphere.
Where are some of the gases coming from that are causing this effect?
Greenhouse gases do not allow heat E to pass out of the atmosphere as readily as light energy enters it.
The gases trap the heat.
If these gases were not present in the atmosphere, the Earth would be 30oC cooler.
In 2050, Earth’s temp may increase by 2 to 4oC.Global Warming
Temperate Zone- 30o to 60o N and S latitudes.
Arctic (Polar)Zone- beyond 60o N or S latitudes.Climate Zones
Ex: water, soil, light , temperature, wind, and physical space.
Biotic factors- living parts of the environment.
Ex: plants, animals and other organisms.Parts of the environment
1.43 Understand that and describe how organisms are influenced by a particular combination of living and non-living components in the environment.
It provides the members of a species with food, shelter, water, and whatever else they need to survive.Habitats
An organism’s role in the environment.
What organism eats
how it eats, where lives
temperatures needed to survive
where in food chain,
Can two species share a niche in the same habitat? Note: different tree elevations may be different habitats.Niches
Resourceis any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food or space.
Competition exclusion principle states that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time.Community Interactions
Damaged ecosystems from a flood or fire are likely to recover in stages that eventually results in a system similar to the original one.
Ecosystems can be relatively stable over hundreds or thousands of years.
Changing conditions affect the communities of organisms that live in the ecosystemChanging with the Environment
What is a pioneer species?
Primary succession is the colonization of new sites by communities of organisms after a change in the ecosystem. (Volcanoes)
1000’s of years
After time, primary succession slows down, and the community becomes fairly stable.Succession: Changes over Time
Describe a place around you where you have seen succession occurring.
Secondary succession is the sequence of community changes when a community is disrupted by natural disasters or human actions.
Fewer than 100 yearsSecondary Succession
The following the succession of a whale-fall community.
Large whale dies and sinks to ocean floor and attracts scavengers and decomposers.
Tissues are eaten by smaller org. Decomposition enriches sediments, for other species.
Heterotrophic bacteria decompose oil in bones and serve as energy sources for chemosynthetic autotrophs that support other org.
Pg. 96Successionin a Marine Ecosystem
Microclimate- climate in a small area that differs from the climate around it.
(Make graphic organizer for biomes including: climate, flora, fauna, location, other characteristics.
San Luis Opispo, California
plant life in the tundra consists of mosses and lichens
Where do you think tundras are located?
Northern N. America, Asia, EuropeTundra
Eastern US, SE Canada, most of Europe, parts of Japan, China and Australia
Move up temperature decreases and precipitation increases.
Polar ice caps- cold year round.
Mosses and lichens grow.
Northern- Polar bears, seals, insects and mites.
Southern polar region- 5km of ice. Penguins and marine animals.Other Land Areas
3. Wetlands: ecosystem where water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year.
Marshes- shallow wetlands along rivers
Swamp- flooded forest
4. Estuary: wetlands where fresh water and saltwater mix. They form where rivers meet the sea and deposit nutrient-rich sediment.
detritus- tiny pieces of organic material that are food.
Salt marshes- temperature zone estuaries dominated by low-tide line and seagrasses underwater.
Coastal Wetlands (mangrove swamps): along seacoast that are sometimes mixed with saltwater. Florida
Squids and fishes make their own light.
Bottom-dwellers, sea stars, shrimp, crabs, clams, worms, urchins, sponges and sea anemones.