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  1. Database Design and Implementation (including SQL) Also see MS Access notes:Access: Part1, Part2, Part3, Part4

  2. Databases • Bit • Most basic unit of data • Combined into groups of eight called bytes • Fields • Group of bytes • Record • Collection of related fields Invitation to Computer Science, 5th Edition

  3. Databases (continued) • Data file • Stores related records • Database • Made up of related files Invitation to Computer Science, 5th Edition

  4. Figure 14.3 Data Organization Hierarchy Invitation to Computer Science, 5th Edition

  5. Figure 14.4 Records and Fields in a Single File Invitation to Computer Science, 5th Edition

  6. Figure 14.5 One Record in an Employees File Invitation to Computer Science, 5th Edition

  7. Database Management Systems • Manage the files in a database • Entity • Fundamental distinguishable component • Attribute • Category of information • Primary key • Attribute or combination of attributes that uniquely identifies a tuple Invitation to Computer Science, 5th Edition

  8. Figure 14.6 Employees Table Invitation to Computer Science, 5th Edition

  9. Database Management Systems (continued) • Query languages • Enable user or another application program to query the database, in order to retrieve information • Composite primary key • Needed to identify a tuple uniquely • Foreign key • Key from another table that refers to a specific key, usually the primary key Invitation to Computer Science, 5th Edition

  10. Figure 14.7 Insurance Policies Table for Rugs-For-You Invitation to Computer Science, 5th Edition

  11. Figure 14.8 Three Entities in a Payroll Database Invitation to Computer Science, 5th Edition

  12. Other Considerations • Performance issues • Affect the user’s satisfaction with a database management system • To significantly reduce access time: • Create additional records to be stored along with the file • Distributed databases • Allow the physical data to reside at separate and independent locations that are electronically networked together Invitation to Computer Science, 5th Edition

  13. Introduction to Database System Concepts

  14. Database Management System (DBMS) • DBMS contains information about a particular enterprise • Collection of interrelated data • Set of programs to access the data • An environment that is both convenient and efficient to use • Database Applications: • Banking: all transactions • Airlines: reservations, schedules • Universities: registration, grades • Sales: customers, products, purchases • Online retailers: order tracking, customized recommendations • Manufacturing: production, inventory, orders, supply chain • Human resources: employee records, salaries, tax deductions • Databases touch all aspects of our lives

  15. Purpose of Database Systems • In the early days, database applications were built directly on top of file systems • Drawbacks of using file systems to store data: • Data redundancy and inconsistency • Multiple file formats, duplication of information in different files • Difficulty in accessing data • Need to write a new program to carry out each new task • Data isolation — multiple files and formats • Integrity problems • Integrity constraints (e.g. account balance > 0) become “buried” in program code rather than being stated explicitly • Hard to add new constraints or change existing ones

  16. Purpose of Database Systems (Cont.) • Drawbacks of using file systems (cont.) • Atomicity of updates • Failures may leave database in an inconsistent state with partial updates carried out • Example: Transfer of funds from one account to another should either complete or not happen at all • Concurrent access by multiple users • Concurrent access needed for performance • Uncontrolled concurrent accesses can lead to inconsistencies • Example: Two people reading a balance and updating it at the same time • Security problems • Hard to provide user access to some, but not all, data • Database systems offer solutions to all the above problems

  17. Levels of Abstraction • Physical level: describes how a record (e.g., customer) is stored. • Logical level: describes data stored in database, and the relationships among the data. typecustomer = record customer_id : string; customer_name : string;customer_street : string;customer_city : integer; end; • View level: application programs hide details of data types. Views can also hide information (such as an employee’s salary) for security purposes.

  18. View of Data An architecture for a database system

  19. Instances and Schemas • Similar to types and variables in programming languages • Schema – the logical structure of the database • Example: The database consists of information about a set of customers and accounts and the relationship between them) • Analogous to type information of a variable in a program • Physical schema: database design at the physical level • Logical schema: database design at the logical level • Instance – the actual content of the database at a particular point in time • Analogous to the value of a variable • Physical Data Independence – the ability to modify the physical schema without changing the logical schema • Applications depend on the logical schema • In general, the interfaces between the various levels and components should be well defined so that changes in some parts do not seriously influence others.

  20. Data Models • A collection of tools for describing • Data • Data relationships • Data semantics • Data constraints • Relational model • Entity-Relationship data model (mainly for database design) • Object-based data models (Object-oriented and Object-relational) • Semistructured data model (XML) • Other older models: • Network model • Hierarchical model

  21. Data Manipulation Language (DML) • Language for accessing and manipulating the data organized by the appropriate data model • DML also known as query language • Two classes of languages • Procedural – user specifies what data is required and how to get those data • Declarative (nonprocedural) – user specifies what data is required without specifying how to get those data • SQL is the most widely used query language

  22. Data Definition Language (DDL) • Specification notation for defining the database schema Example: create tableaccount (account-numberchar(10),balanceinteger) • DDL compiler generates a set of tables stored in a data dictionary • Data dictionary contains metadata (i.e., data about data) • Database schema • Data storage and definition language • Specifies the storage structure and access methods used • Integrity constraints • Domain constraints • Referential integrity (references constraint in SQL) • Assertions • Authorization

  23. Relational Model Attributes • Example of tabular data in the relational model

  24. A Sample Relational Database

  25. SQL • SQL: widely used non-procedural language • Example: Find the name of the customer with customer-id 192-83-7465select customer.customer_namefrom customerwherecustomer.customer_id = ‘192-83-7465’ • Example: Find the balances of all accounts held by the customer with customer-id 192-83-7465selectaccount.balancefromdepositor, accountwheredepositor.customer_id = ‘192-83-7465’ anddepositor.account_number = account.account_number • Application programs generally access databases through one of • Language extensions to allow embedded SQL • Application program interface (e.g., ODBC/JDBC) which allow SQL queries to be sent to a database

  26. Database Design The process of designing the general structure of the database: • Logical Design – Deciding on the database schema. Database design requires that we find a “good” collection of relation schemas. • Business decision – What attributes should we record in the database? • Computer Science decision – What relation schemas should we have and how should the attributes be distributed among the various relation schemas? • Physical Design – Deciding on the physical layout of the database

  27. The Entity-Relationship Model • Models an enterprise as a collection of entities and relationships • Entity: a “thing” or “object” in the enterprise that is distinguishable from other objects • Described by a set of attributes • Relationship: an association among several entities • Represented diagrammatically by an entity-relationship diagram:

  28. XML: Extensible Markup Language • Defined by the WWW Consortium (W3C) • Originally intended as a document markup language not a database language • The ability to specify new tags, and to create nested tag structures made XML a great way to exchange data, not just documents • XML has become the basis for all new generation data interchange formats. • A wide variety of tools is available for parsing, browsing and querying XML documents/data

  29. Data Definition Language, i.e. SQL • The schema for each relation. • The domain of values associated with each attribute. • Integrity constraints • The set of indices to be maintained for each relations. • Security and authorization information for each relation. • The physical storage structure of each relation on disk. Allows the specification of not only a set of relations but also information about each relation, including:

  30. Domain Types in SQL • char(n). Fixed length character string, with user-specified length n. • varchar(n). Variable length character strings, with user-specified maximum length n. • int.Integer (a finite subset of the integers that is machine-dependent). • smallint. Small integer (a machine-dependent subset of the integer domain type). • numeric(p,d). Fixed point number, with user-specified precision of p digits, with n digits to the right of decimal point. • real, double precision. Floating point and double-precision floating point numbers, with machine-dependent precision. • float(n). Floating point number, with user-specified precision of at least n digits. • More ...

  31. Create Table Construct • An SQL relation is defined using the create tablecommand: create table r (A1D1, A2D2, ..., An Dn,(integrity-constraint1), ..., (integrity-constraintk)) • r is the name of the relation • each Ai is an attribute name in the schema of relation r • Di is the data type of values in the domain of attribute Ai • Example: create table branch (branch_name char(15) not null,branch_city char(30),assets integer)

  32. Integrity Constraints in Create Table • not null • primary key (A1, ..., An ) Example: Declare branch_name as the primary key for branch . create table branch(branch_name char(15),branch_city char(30),assets integer,primary key (branch_name)) primary key declaration on an attribute automatically ensures not null

  33. Drop and Alter Table Constructs • The drop tablecommand deletes all information about the dropped relation from the database. • The alter table command is used to add attributes to an existing relation: alter table r add A D where A is the name of the attribute to be added to relation r and D is the domain of A. • All tuples in the relation are assigned null as the value for the new attribute. • The alter table command can also be used to drop attributes of a relation: alter table r drop A where A is the name of an attribute of relation r • Dropping of attributes not supported by many databases

  34. Basic Query Structure • SQL is based on set and relational operations with certain modifications and enhancements • A typical SQL query has the form:select A1, A2, ..., AnfromR1, R2, ..., Rmwhere P • Ai represents an attribute • Ri represents a relation • P is a predicate. • The result of an SQL query is a relation.

  35. The select Clause • The select clause list the attributes desired in the result of a query • Example: find the names of all branches in the loan relation: • select branch_namefrom loan • NOTE: SQL names are case insensitive (i.e., you may use upper- or lower-case letters.) • E.g. Branch_Name ≡ BRANCH_NAME ≡ branch_name

  36. The select Clause (Cont.) • SQL allows duplicates in relations as well as in query results. • To force the elimination of duplicates, insert the keyword distinct after select. • Find the names of all branches in the loan relations, and remove duplicates select distinct branch_namefrom loan • The keyword all specifies that duplicates not be removed. select allbranch_namefrom loan

  37. The select Clause (Cont.) • An asterisk in the select clause denotes “all attributes” select *from loan • The select clause can contain arithmetic expressions involving the operation, +, –, , and /, and operating on constants or attributes of tuples. • The query: selectloan_number, branch_name, amount  100from loan would return a relation that is the same as the loan relation, except that the value of the attribute amount is multiplied by 100.

  38. The where Clause • The whereclause specifies conditions that the result must satisfy • To find all loan number for loans made at the Perryridge branch with loan amounts greater than $1200. select loan_numberfrom loanwhere branch_name ='Perryridge'and amount > 1200 • Comparison results can be combined using the logical connectives and, or, and not. • Comparisons can be applied to results of arithmetic expressions.

  39. The where Clause (Cont.) • SQL includes a between comparison operator • Example: Find the loan number of those loans with loan amounts between $90,000 and $100,000 (that is,  $90,000 and  $100,000) select loan_numberfrom loanwhere amountbetween 90000 and 100000

  40. The from Clause • The fromclause lists the relations involved in the query • Find the Cartesian product borrower X loan select from borrower, loan • Find the name, loan number and loan amount of all customers having a loan at the Perryridge branch. select customer_name, borrower.loan_number, amountfrom borrower, loanwhere borrower.loan_number = loan.loan_number andbranch_name = 'Perryridge'

  41. The Rename Operation • The SQL allows renaming relations and attributes using the as clause: old-name as new-name • Find the name, loan number and loan amount of all customers; rename the column name loan_number as loan_id. select customer_name, borrower.loan_number as loan_id, amountfrom borrower, loanwhere borrower.loan_number = loan.loan_number

  42. Tuple Variables • Tuple variables are defined in the from clause via the use of the as clause. • Find the customer names and their loan numbers for all customers having a loan at some branch. select customer_name, T.loan_number, S.amountfrom borrower as T, loan as Swhere T.loan_number = S.loan_number • Find the names of all branches that have greater assets than some branch located in Brooklyn. select distinct T.branch_namefrom branch as T, branch as Swhere T.assets > S.assets and S.branch_city = 'Brooklyn' • Keyword as is optional and may be omittedborrower as T ≡ borrowerT

  43. String Operations • SQL includes a string-matching operator for comparisons on character strings. The operator “like” uses patterns that are described using two special characters: • percent (%). The % character matches any substring. • underscore (_). The _ character matches any character. • Find the names of all customers whose street includes the substring “Main”. select customer_namefrom customerwherecustomer_street like '% Main%' • SQL supports a variety of string operations

  44. Ordering the Display of Tuples • List in alphabetic order the names of all customers having a loan in Perryridge branch select distinct customer_namefrom borrower, loanwhere borrower loan_number = loan.loan_number and branch_name = 'Perryridge' order by customer_name • We may specify desc for descending order or asc for ascending order, for each attribute; ascending order is the default. • Example: order bycustomer_namedesc

  45. Set Operations • The set operations union, intersect, and exceptoperate on relations and correspond to the relational algebra operations  • Each of the above operations automatically eliminates duplicates; to retain all duplicates use the corresponding multiset versions union all, intersect alland except all.Suppose a tuple occurs m times in r and n times in s, then, it occurs: • m + n times in r union all s • min(m,n) times in rintersect all s • max(0, m – n) times in rexcept all s

  46. Set Operations • Find all customers who have a loan, an account, or both: (selectcustomer_name from depositor)union(selectcustomer_name from borrower) • Find all customers who have both a loan and an account. (selectcustomer_name from depositor)intersect(selectcustomer_name from borrower) • Find all customers who have an account but no loan. (selectcustomer_name from depositor)except(selectcustomer_name from borrower)

  47. Aggregate Functions • These functions operate on the multiset of values of a column of a relation, and return a value avg: average valuemin: minimum valuemax: maximum valuesum: sum of valuescount: number of values

  48. Aggregate Functions (Cont.) • Find the average account balance at the Perryridge branch. select avg (balance)from accountwhere branch_name = 'Perryridge' • Find the number of tuples in the customer relation. select count (*)from customer • Find the number of depositors in the bank. select count (distinct customer_name)from depositor

  49. Aggregate Functions – Group By • Find the number of depositors for each branch. select branch_name, count (distinctcustomer_name)from depositor, accountwhere depositor.account_number = account.account_numbergroup by branch_name Note: Attributes in select clause outside of aggregate functions must appear in group by list

  50. Aggregate Functions – Having Clause • Find the names of all branches where the average account balance is more than $1,200. select branch_name, avg (balance)from accountgroup by branch_namehaving avg(balance) > 1200 Note: predicates in the having clause are applied after the formation of groups whereas predicates in the where clause are applied before forming groups