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Winschoten 2011 25th World and European Championships FOOD CONTAMINATION and THE EFFECTS ON HUMANS Dr ARTHUR BRULE Fédération Française d'Athlétisme. FOOD CONTAMINATION and THE EFFECTS ON HUMANS. Summary : Fall with the food quality Food contamination Effects on ultra endurance athletes

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Winschoten 2011 25th World and European Championships


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    1. Winschoten 2011 25th World and European Championships FOOD CONTAMINATION and THE EFFECTS ON HUMANS Dr ARTHUR BRULE Fédération Française d'Athlétisme

    2. FOOD CONTAMINATION and THE EFFECTS ON HUMANS Summary : Fall with the food quality Food contamination Effects on ultra endurance athletes Food and antidoping test

    3. Fall with the food quality Less diversity On earth, 10 000 to 50 000 plants 7 000 varieties were used since the beginning. Now only 30 are the base of 90% of human food In USA and compared with 100 years later, only 1% of legumes are on market

    4. Fall with the food quality Less quality Since 1963 for the chicken : -53% for Vitamin A and Potassium Milk : -50% iron ; -36% calcium ; +77% sodium Potatoes : -57% Vitamin C and Iron ; -28% Calcium

    5. Food contamination A child with normal food during one day : 47 classified substances carcinogenic and 37 endocrine troublemakers 100% of spanish pregnant women have at least one pesticide in their placenta The production of one apple use 27 treatments. For the Strawberry in Spain : « bromure de Methyle » (endocrine troublemaker and toxic substance forbidden in Europe) but with special autorization by spanish autorities

    6. Food contamination USA, 2008 : 90% of soya are genetically modified and tolerate Roundup France use 5 millions ton of US soya and 80% of animal production is contaminated

    7. Food contamination Substances in bovines production : Oestradiol, testostérone, progestérone, steroides (zeranol, trembolone, melangestrol) Melamine in the milk in 2008 in China : 13 000 children go to hospital, 54 000 under medical treatment Irradiation is used for the conservation of food

    8. Effects on ultra endurance athletes I will present here 5 researchs All are about the class of Pesticide Not really good news for us

    9. Effects on ultra endurance athletes 1st Research Organochlorines are fat soluble chemical compounds and are resistant to degradation Ingested with food Concentrations compared in three groups : endurance athletes, lean sedentary subjects and obese individuals

    10. Effects on ultra endurance athletes 1st Research Increased levels of circulating organochlorines is associated with large adipose tissue compartment Lower plasma concentration for leaner sedentary and trained persons That's the only good news (sure for our athletes here, but not for everyone...)

    11. Effects on ultra endurance athletes 2nd Research : Organochlorines Lipid mobilization and decrease in fat mass (during diet or before competition) result in increased of plasma concentrations They are associated with altered immune and thyroid functions and with some types of cancer Could complicate body weight-loss strategies and even favour weight regain

    12. Effects on ultra endurance athletes 3rd Research : Organophosphate exposure on Swiss Mice (mouse for laboratory) They are associated with an increased risk of depression and suicide Here they want to know what is modified ? They use some endurance swimming test with exposure dose without systemic toxicity

    13. Effects on ultra endurance athletes 3rd Research : Acetylcholinesterase activity was inhibited in high dose and low dose, even post exposure in the high dose group No motor performance alterations High dose increased immobility in the forced swimming test and emerged after cessation of exposure

    14. Effects on ultra endurance athletes 3rd Research : Indicate that this pesticide induce some depressive-like behavior in adult mice. So you can say to your coach : « that's not my legs nor my brain, i want to win but it's my food ! »

    15. Effects on ultra endurance athletes 4th Research : 2,4-Dbe : 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic butyl ester It is used in weed-killer in the garden They used Rotarod performance and open field to mesure the endurance. Administration of this pesticide to 90-day-old intact male rats depressed the performance

    16. Effects on ultra endurance athletes 4th Research : Castration of male rats will improve the tests and normalize the performance Now they put some exogenous testosterone on gonadectomized rats and they found the same low performance So there is a link between pesticide and performance, only if there is testostérone (which male or female human has not some testosterone here ?)

    17. Effects on ultra endurance athletes 5th Research : Fenitrothion : pesticide used with chikungunya and others Marsupial are mammal like humans. Marsupial with fenitrothion exposure have only half of the time effort against non exposed

    18. Effects on ultra endurance athletes 5th Research : They didn't find why the animals have less endurance and find no change on their oxygen consumption The same test 5 days after exposure have the same results

    19. Food and antidoping test April 2011 : Officialy, China would like to limit the use of clenbuterol for production of pork. April 2011 : UEFA (Union of European Football Association) want to prevent positive test during U17 Football world cup in Mexico

    20. Food and antidoping test Two german travellers were negative before going to Mexico and positive for Clenbuterol at 115 et 90pg/ml after the return in Germany No limit for positive test with clenbuterol The same problem with travel in China with clenbuterol test

    21. Food and antidoping test January 2011, UEFA also made an information about Methylhexaneamine in some food complement The same molecule can be written with different names : 1,3-diméthylamylamine, diméthylamylamine, diméthylpentylamine, DMAA, forthan, forthane, floradrane, géranamine et huile de géranium (that's only the french names...)

    22. FOOD CONTAMINATION and THE EFFECTS ON HUMANS So the problem of food during travelling for our athletes can be a big problem without any easy solution with expected effects on : - Performance - Anti doping control - Health Even if they are perfect at home ........

    23. Conclusion Bon Appétit