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Input to Output. Rakesh M. Bhatt University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Five givens in SLA: #1. SLA involves the creation of an implicit (unconscious) linguistic system Compare: Mujhko ghar jaanaa hai ?maine ghar jaanaa hai *mai ghar jaanaa hai. #2. SLA is Complex

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input to output

Input to Output

Rakesh M. Bhatt

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

five givens in sla 1
Five givens in SLA: #1
  • SLA involves the creation of an implicit (unconscious) linguistic system
    • Compare:
      • Mujhko ghar jaanaa hai
      • ?maine ghar jaanaa hai
      • *mai ghar jaanaa hai
slide3
#2
  • SLA is
    • Complex
      • Linguistic competence
        • Lexicon/Morphology/Syntax
      • Communicative competence
        • Pragmatics/Discourse
    • Different processes
      • Input processing
      • Change —accommodation, restructuring
      • Output processing
slide4
#3
  • SLA is dynamic but slow
    • Developmental stages
    • Acquisition orders
      • sequential acquisition
slide5
#4
  • Most L2 learners fall short of native like competence
    • Critical Period Hypothesis
    • Ultimate attainment: rare, exception

=>Nonnativeness is natural and typical

slide6
#5
  • Skill acquisition is different from the creation of the implicit system
    • Knowledge, yes
    • Articulation, no
input
Input
  • Language that a learner hears (reads) that has some kind of communicative intent
  • This input must be processed (made comprehensible) for acquisition to take place

=>Input => processing=>intake

input processing principles
Input processing: Principles
  • Learners process input for meaning before anything else
    • Process content words
    • Process meaningful grammatical forms
  • Learners process content/propositional message with minimal cost to attentional sources
principles contd
Principles contd.
  • Utterance initial position is the most salient, followed by final position
  • Learners interpret first noun/noun phrase as the subject of the sentence
output
Output
  • Language that has communicative purpose
    • Language that learners produce to express some kind of meaning
  • 2 important (related) elements of output
    • Fluency: speed and accuracy
    • Automatization: speaking w/out much conscious effort