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Artificial Intelligence & LAW. Ermo Täks. Evolution of using computers. Used technology. PC + LAN. Internet. Mainframe. Data management. Informaation management. Knowledge management. Processed content. Computerization. Business Reengineering. Main principle. Transformation.

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evolution of using computers
Evolutionofusingcomputers

Usedtechnology

PC + LAN

Internet

Mainframe

Datamanagement

Informaationmanagement

Knowledgemanagement

Processedcontent

Computerization

BusinessReengineering

Main principle

Transformation

used technology
Usedtechnology
  • IT historycanbedividedintothree eras
    • Mainframe;
    • PC (personal computer) plus LAN (local area network);
    • Internet computing.
data management
DataManagement
  • All theeffortsfordatacomputing
    • first census data processing system in the USA in 1951
    • the first computer payrollsystem, deployed in the USA in 1954
  • Batch processing -execution of a series of programs on a computer without manual intervention.
  • Soon real-timeand/oron-timedataprocessingwasintroduced
  • themaincontent processed and managed by computers - data
information management
InformationManagement
  • Softwaredevelopmentfocused on
    • data
    • information management
  • used to support
    • administration andmanagementofanorganization
    • decision-making
  • Emergeofmanagement information systems (MIS) and decision-making support systems (DSS)
  • maincontentprocessedand managed by computers had shifted to information
knowledge management
KnowledgeManagement
  • Thecontent has been shifted from data/information toknowledge.
  • there are more than 10 billion web pages existing on the Internet
    • increase by about 2 million pages a day
  • informationexplosionon the Internet isa serious challenge to humankind
  • Main question:
    • howtomake
    • adequate use of the information
    • available on the Internet
  • so that the information
    • can be transformed to
    • organizational and/or personal knowledge
    • which brings value and benefit to all?
computerization
Computerization
  • various efforts to computerize businessprocesses
  • involved using computers to
    • automate or aid business activities
    • wherever computerscould play a role
    • for the sake of efficiency and productivity
  • mostpopularterm was “computerization
    • just computerizingexisting business processes as much as possible
business process reengineering
BusinessProcessReengineering
  • Distributedprocessingand networkcomputingintroducedadvancesmade peopleto
    • rethink the guiding principles
    • of computer applications
    • in an organization
  • Oftenprovidingto
    • new ways of doing business,
    • sometimes completelytransforminga businessprocess.
business process reengineering1
BusinessProcessReengineering
  • maineffortsinclude:
    • Eliminating layers of traditional management;
    • Compressingjobcategories;
    • Creatingworkteams;
    • Training employees in multilevel skills;
    • Shortening and simplifying variousbusiness processes; and
    • Streamliningadministration.
  • success of business process re-engineering
    • greatlystreamlined the organizational structure,
    • improved management,
    • raised effectiveness and efficiency, and
    • boostedproductivity.
transformation
Transformation
  • Internet canhelp government in
    • improving its interactions with businesses and citizens,
    • while providing a soundbasis
    • for establishing a new type of partnership relationship
  • government informatization is no longer simply an internal business ofgovernment.
  • Whenever an IT project is going to be put on the agenda,
    • government must take itsinternaldemandsand the external interactions
    • with business and citizens as a whole into consideration.
transformation1
Transformation
  • Governmentalsystems
    • must be planned and designed
    • under the architecture of theInternet and
    • under the circumstance of globalization
  • Today’s government environment, is totallydifferent from the previous one
  • Governmentsare facing a task of transformation.
  • Governmenthaveto
    • reinvent the existing modality and organizational structure of government,
    • which was created for theindustrial age and
    • has existed for about two hundred years.
what is bpr
Whatis BPR?
  • A collection of activities designed to produce a specific output for a particular customer or market
  • Emphasison how the work is done within an organisationratherthanproduction
  • A specific ordering of work activities across time and place
  • Clearlydefined inputs and outputs
slide14

TharangaThilakasiri, Importance of business process reengineering

,http://www.ft.lk/2010/11/11/importance-of-business-process-reengineering

the need
The need
  • Publicsectorprocessesare highlystructured
    • hard to have these old and complex procedures transformed
  • Government is the only one that provides public services.
    • Interaction withgovernment is not a matter of choice.
  • There is a big fragmentation of workflows
  • There are many levels of decision-making and centralized control.
  • political leaders ignore matters related to IT
    • anddelegate them to technical experts
business process improvement
Business process improvement
  • equivalent to re-decorating a house
  • usually within a single department
business process reengineering2
Business process reengineering
  • usually targetingdifferent departments, cross-functional
  • supports the company’s Business Plan.
  • Focusto support of mid-term targets (three to four years in the future)
business process architecture
Business process architecture
  • objective to achieve an overall change
  • Investment, timeusageand the risk are substantial
  • No guarantees of achieving the desired returns
  • unlimited in scope
bpr fundamentials
BPR fundamentials
  • Fundamentalrethinking and radical redesign of business processes
  • to achieve dramatic improvements incritical,contemporary measures of performance, such as
    • cost,
    • quality,
    • service,
    • speed
fundamental
Fundamental
  • ask the most fundamental questions
    • about their organizations
    • how they operate

Why do we do what we do?

And why do we do it the way we do?

bpr methodology
BPR Methodology

1.Establishing an organisation’s approach to BPR2.Identifying the opportunity3.Analysis of an existing process4.Process re-design5.Implementation of the change6.Performance monitoring

bpr in public s ector
BPR inPublicSector
  • Different types of interactions of the government:
    • G2C (to Citizens),
    • G2B (to Business),
    • G2G (to Government),
    • B2G (BusinessestoGovernment
  • One-Stop Government (OSG),
    • a concept related to e-government, consists of theintegration of services from the viewpoint of users
      • citizens,
      • business
      • publicservers
difficulties of bpr in public sector
Difficultiesof BPR inPublicSector
  • Attitude-Willingness to apply the radical changes derived from BPR.
  • Scope - Changes depth. The more drastic the change, the wider its scope.
  • Extension - Amount of functional areas and entities included in business processes.
  • Knowledge- Abilities of leaders and team members in charge of BPR.
  • Leadership- Project leader influence and authority.
  • Objectives - Definition degree of objectives to be attained with the project.
  • InstitutionalRestrictions - Legislation and standards that restrict the development of new proposals.
  • Resources- Availability of human and financial resources.
  • Techno centrism - Focusing on technological uses and ignoring other organizational aspects.
risks of applying bpr
Risksofapplying BPR
  • A focus on top-down design at the expense of employee participation and concerns about implementation;
  • Less meaningful interaction of organization members and a loss of organizational culture.
  • A danger of increased organizational rigidity;
  • Inadvertent deflation of the knowledge asset which is central to public sector organisations;
transformational process
TransformationalProcess
  • is made up of four key components:
    • the work to be done by the organisation,
    • the individuals who do the job,
    • the formal structures and processes in place to motivate performance
    • the informal arrangements such as communication and influence
transformational process1
TransformationalProcess
  • a criticalfactor:
    • What is it that the organisation hopes to achieve? How will success be measured?
    • What structures need to be put in place to ensure there is support for the change?
    • Who will lead the change?
    • Are there those who will act as champions of the change?
    • How will the organisation build the confidence of staff?
resistance to change
ResistancetoChange
  • handling people’s reaction to change is difficult to anticipate and manage
  • one needsto see it from the perspective of the person experiencing it, bearing in mind the culture they live in.
m inimising resistance to change
Minimising resistance to change
  • 6 key activities:
    • Avoidoverorganising.
    • Communicate like never before.
    • Work at gaining commitment.
    • Turn perceptions of threat to opportunities.
    • Ensureearlyinvolvement.
    • Provide help to face up to change.