Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

manoush-jasmine
political reform and reaction to industrialization n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization

play fullscreen
1 / 21
Download Presentation
Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization
113 Views
Download Presentation

Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

  2. Industrial Order 1850-1914 • Industrial Development continued • Governments developed new functions • Rise of socialism changed political conditions • Urban growth continued; improved living conditions

  3. Europe • Increased voting rights • Benjamin Disraeli • Cavour and Bismarck • US Civil War ended sectional rights and abolished slavery • France increased voting rights • Most Western nations had a parliamentary system where basic liberties were protected and political parties contested peacefully for office

  4. Reactions to Industrialization • Socialism • Utopian Socialism • Utilitarianism • Marxism; Communism • Unionism

  5. Europe • Western Settler Societies • Search for new markets and raw materials • Transportation and communications improved • Superior weapons • Massive emigration spread western culture

  6. Western Settler Societies • Migration • Increased as Europeans went to the US, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and South Africa in search of cheap land and better economic opportunities • Served as a new labor force • Most migrants were free agents although some were indentured servants

  7. Western Settler Societies • Three British colonies • Established parliamentary governments, vigorous commercial economies, European cultural patterns • Dependent on British economy • Canada • Friction between British rulers and French inhabitants • Formed a federal system • Majority of French lived in Quebec • Australia • 1788, lived among indigenous hunting and gathering population • Agricultural development and discovery of gold • Spurred population growth and economy • Federal system developed in 1900 • New Zealand • Missionaries and settlers moved into Maori territory • Maori defeated by the 1860s • Generally good relations • Developed strong agricultural economy and parliamentary system

  8. Global Industrialization • Global division of labor • Dependency theory

  9. Reaction and Reform • Questions of change and reform • Alteration of traditional society • Ottoman Empire • In decline, less unified • Decrease in trade • Atlantic trade • Dependent on foreign loans and goods • Capitulations (special rights and privileges)

  10. Reaction and Reform • Mahmud II • Reform • Organized more effective army and system of secondary education • Built new roads, telegraph lines, and postal service • Tanzimat era (1839-1879) • Law reform based on French legal system • Public trials and equality overtook religious law • Reaction • Sultan Adbul Hamid (1878-1908)

  11. Reaction and Reform • Reforms met opposition from religious conservatives and bureaucracy • The Young Turks • Exiled Ottoman subjects • Pushed for universal suffrage • Equality before the law • Emancipation of women • 1908 coup d’etat • Puppet sultan • Muhammad Ali--Egypt • Powerful army • Sponsored industrialization in textiles and armament • Suez Canal

  12. Reaction and Reform • Russia vs. Ottoman Empire • Similar • Autocratic, multiethnic, multilingual, and multicultural • Czars supported by Russian Orthodox Church and noble class, sultans also supported by Muslims and noble class • Peasants majority of population • Serfdom a guarantee of social stability • Different • Russia vastly expanded its territory • Russian military out of date (Crimean War) • Russian government pushed to modernize

  13. Reaction and Reform • Russia • Emancipation of the serfs • Alexander II in 1861 • Zemstvos--1864 • Elected representatives subordinate to the czar • Encouraged industrializtion • Trans-Siberian railroad (handout) • Peasant rebellions and industrial worker strikes • Reduced working hours; but outlawed unions and strikes

  14. Reform and Reaction • Russia • Anti-government protest increased • Intelligentsia • Land and Freedom party assassinated Alexander II 1881 • Era of Repression • End of government reform • Extensive military spending • Defeated by Japan in 1904-1905 • Protests continued • January 1905 • Bloody Sunday, aka Revolution of 1905 • Created the Duma

  15. Reform and Reaction • China • Qing dynasty losing effectiveness • Rapid population increase • Quadrupled to 420,000,000 people (estimate) • Created strain on nation • Many famines, wars, and rebellions weakened the dynasty • Trade • British customs dispute • Opium Wars (China defeated) • Creation of unequal treaties favoring British and other Europeans

  16. Reform and Reaction • China • Rebellions • Taiping Rebellion • Hong Xiuquan • Believed he was brother of Jesus Christ • Social reform movement 1850s • Taiping Tianguo (Heavenly Kingdom) • Gained large territory • Internal disputes allow Qing to defeat army (10 year struggle) • Bloodiest civil war in history

  17. Reform and Reaction • China • Empress Dowager Cixi • Cancelled reforms and imprisoned the emperor • Anti-foreigner Boxer Rebellion • Multi-national response • China forced to pay indemnity for damages • Nationalist Movement • Sun Yixian • 1911 modern Republic of China • Three Principles of the people • Nationalism; democracy; socialism • Most people uneducated and unable to feed themselves

  18. Reform and Reaction • Japan-the Meiji Restoration • The most radical reforms and changes • Emerged as a world power • Younger generation • Wanted to undermine the daimyos, overthrew the shogun and advance modernization • 1868 restoration of the emperor • Named “Meiji” or “Enlightened One” • Called both a revolution and a restoration

  19. Reform and Reaction • Japan-the Meiji Restoration • Modernization • Early reforms • Dissolution of the Samurai • 1877 Civil War • Powerful outside technology (guns) • Momentum shifts to national army • Political reconstruction • Political parties formed • New constitution 1889 • Limited the right to vote based on property

  20. Reform and Reaction • Japan-the Meiji Restoration • Rapid industrialization and modernization • Modern infrastructure and military • Defeated the Chinese and Russians in war • Began building an empire in the Pacific • Industrial revolution by non-Europeans

  21. The End