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Focus of last week. Schema theory Cognitive load theory Presentation of information. Topics. Nez Perce Indians Wildflowers of the Desert Constellations Polynesians. Polynesians. Social Customs Tools Social Organization Food Gathering and Preparation Clothing Religious Ceremonies

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Focus of last week


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focus of last week
Focus of last week
  • Schema theory
  • Cognitive load theory
  • Presentation of information
topics
Topics
  • Nez Perce Indians
  • Wildflowers of the Desert
  • Constellations
  • Polynesians
polynesians
Polynesians
  • Social Customs
  • Tools
  • Social Organization
  • Food Gathering and Preparation
  • Clothing
  • Religious Ceremonies
  • Housing
  • Transportation
the polynesians had a very advanced culture for their time
The Polynesians had a very advanced culture for their time.

Supporting Information:

  • Master navigators
  • Master boat builders
  • Complex pictorial language
  • Extensive domain
  • Impressive art
  • Creative tool making
  • Creative adaptation
topic versus concept
Topic versus Concept
  • Topic
  • The relationship of water to cultural activity.
  • Concept
  • The presence of water played a significant role in the extent and type of human activity.
limited by number of symbols
Limited by number of symbols
  • Water from Steens Mountain controlled and continues to control life on and around the mountain.
supporting stories
Supporting stories
  • Water from the Steens supplies Malheur NWR.
range of topics
Range of topics
  • Natural history
  • Cultural history
  • Past
  • Present
get the point
Get the point!
  • Water from Steens Mountain controlled and continues to control life on and around the mountain.
possible approaches
Possible approaches
  • Information driven approach – organization is something artificial, such as alphabetical or chronological or by sub-topic.
  • Message or concept driven approach – organization of information focuses on the concept. Facts are pieces of information to build a picture of the concept.
concept driven approach
Concept Driven approach
  • Reduces cognitive load because it matches the way the brain wants to process and store information – as a schema.
rosetta stone
Rosetta Stone
  • Information driven or concept driven?
  • Is there a concept that could be used to organize a different presentation about the Rosetta Stone?
basic assumptions
Basic assumptions
  • 1. Mind has to be actively processing information to learn.
  • 2. The mind is trying to acquire (create) schema.
  • 3. The mind has limited processing capacity.
additive
Additive
  • So you have to reduce cognitive load as much as possible to ensure that it is within a person’s capability to process.
cognitive load
Cognitive Load
  • Intrinsic cognitive load
  • Extrinsic cognitive load
  • Germane cognitive load
solution
Solution?
  • Know your audience!
  • For novices, redundancy may be necessary.
  • For experts, it may be extrinsic cognitive load.
the use of examples
The use of examples
  • Typical approach – worked example, problem, worked example, problem, etc.
worked example effect
Worked example effect
  • Eliminate one part of the worked example each time until students are working complete problems.
fading
Fading
  • 7-step problem – show worked example.
  • Show first 6 steps – student does last.
  • Show first 5 steps – student does last 2.
  • Etc.
split attention affect
Split attention affect
  • 4th assumption – we process information along two distinct pathways.
  • Visual and verbal
dual coding theory33
Dual Coding Theory

White rein orchid grows in bogs

semantic association
Semantic Association
  • The degree to which the verbal information overlaps with the visual information (David, 1998).
  • In this case, verbal information from the panel overlapping with visual information in the surrounding environment.
dual coding
Dual Coding
  • 1. Visual information
  • 2. Verbal information
  • 3. Referential connections
ways to reduce cognitive load
Ways to reduce cognitive load
  • Reduce extrinsic cognitive load
  • Avoid redundancy unless necessary
  • Use worked examples
  • Use visuals if possible
  • Use perspectives of maps
  • Avoid split attention
  • Use dual mode if possible