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A Comprehensive History of India Lecture – 3 October 9- 2011 Linguistic Diversity. Maharaj Mukherjee. Lal Patthar. Petroleum. St. Peter’s Cathedral. Petrified Tree. Pathar - Rock. They all came from the same word which means – a rock. What is common among these?. Linguistic Diversity.

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A Comprehensive History of India Lecture – 3 October 9- 2011 Linguistic Diversity

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    1. A Comprehensive History of IndiaLecture – 3October 9- 2011Linguistic Diversity Maharaj Mukherjee

    2. Lal Patthar Petroleum St. Peter’s Cathedral Petrified Tree Pathar - Rock They all came from the same word which means – a rock What is common among these?

    3. Linguistic Diversity Lal Patthar- Hindi Pathar - Bengali Peter – English Petra + Oleum Latin How come the same word is used in so many different languages?

    4. Indo-Aryan (Indo-European) Languages English Hindi French Bengali German Oriya Italian Kashmiri Marathi Parsi Guajarati Tara (Bengali) / Taraka (Sanskrit)/ Sitara (Hindi) /Star (English)/ Astra (Latin) Bhana (Bengali, sanskrit)/ Bahn (German)/ Vehicle (English. Latn)

    5. Indo Aryan Migration

    6. Caucasian Mountains

    7. Aryan Migration to India and Europe • Why did the Aryans Migrate? • Why do people migrate? • Basic Needs • Food • Shelter • Population Pressure • Pursuit of Happiness

    8. Map of India The Aryans also first populated the Indus Valley Indus River Himalayas Ganges River Bindhya Western Ghat Eastern Ghat Bay of Bengal Arabian Sea Indian Ocean

    9. Hints of Reasons of Migration • Indian Mythological Stories • Gods leaving the heaven because of the Asuras • Aryans in Iran (Aryan) worshipped Ahuras • The River Indus was originally known as Sindhu • Sindhu means – a large body of water • Sindhu > Hindu > Hindi > Indus > India • The word Hindu was used by Iranians/Aryans to just distinguish themselves and refer to the tribe that were lost. • The Indian Aryans – did not call themselves as Hindu-s. • The Iranian – Aryans called them Hindu-s and the name got stuck H  S

    10. What were the Aryans Like? • They were nomads • They did not have farms • They did not know how to write • They did not know how to build brick houses or cities • They were great thinkers/inventors • They knew how to make iron • That means they mined for coal and iron • They learned how to use horse in war and hunting

    11. Aryavarta – Land of Aryans Dakshinapath – The way of the South The Spread of Aryans in India • The Aryans moved along the river Ganges • Their spread came to Bengal last • Their spread was limited by Himalyas on the North, Vindhya on the South and Ganges+Bramhaputra on the East

    12. The Spread of the Aryans Gandhara, Madra, Bahika: Afghanistan/ Punjub Kuru: Delhi and surrounding places Panchala: Uttarpradesh Kosala: Bihar Uttar Pradesh Videha, Anga: Bihar

    13. The spread of Aryans • The spread was along the Ganges Plains • As they spread they also fought and interacted with people who were already in India: • Danavas – Big People (Indus Valley People ??) • Rakshashas – Demons (Native Hunter Gatherers) • They learned farming • They learned to build cities • They learned to build states and empires • Will be covered in the next lecture

    14. Aryan way of Life • Aryan Religion • Division of Labor • Life Style • Quest for Learning

    15. Aryan Religion • They worshipped natural forces • Indra – God of rain and thunder on a horse • Varuna – God of water • Agni – God of fire • Pavana – God of the wind • Ashwinis – God of the herbs • Surya – The Sun God • Soma – The Moon God • Bramhana – The God that created everything • As they migrated they also adapted the gods of the natives • Durga, Shiva, Vishnu

    16. Division of Labor (Barna) • Four Categories or Barnas: • Brahmins – Educators, Thinkers, Experts, Priests • Kshatriyas – Soldiers, Rulers, Kings, Knights, • Baishyas – Traders, Business People, Bankers, • Shudras – Farmers, Workers, Laborers • People outside the Barnas – Untouchables • Mainly non-Aryans

    17. Life Style - Ashrama • Four Stages of Life – Ashrama • Balya - Childhood • Spent part at home followed by staying with the teacher in the school • Garhastha – Home life • Working, looking after the family • Banaprastha – Retired life • Sanyasa – Leaving the home and staying as a recluse.

    18. Quest for Learning • First wide spread public school system • They did not know how to write • Spread knowledge from the teacher to the student by learning • First Literature – not written • Vedas • Upanishads

    19. Aryan - Literature • Vedas: A collection of verses describing everything in life • Scientific process – how to lit a fire, proper way of farming • How to lead a disciplined life • Upanishadas: A more filtered version of Vedas dealing with more esoteric and spiritual quests

    20. A quote from the Vedas In the beginning there was neither existence nor non- existence; there was no atmosphere, no sky, and no realm beyond the sky. What power was there? Where was that power? Who was that power? Was it finite or infinite? There was neither death nor immortality. There was nothing to distinguish night from day. There was no wind or breath. God alone breathed by his own energy. Other than God there was... nothing. In the beginning darkness was swathed in darkness. All was liquid and formless. God was clothed in emptiness. Then fire arose within God; and in the fire arose love. This was the seed of the soul. Sages have found this seed within their hearts; they have discovered that it is the bond between existence and non-existence. Who really knows what happened? Who can describe it? How were things produced? Where was creation born? When the universe was created, the one became many. Who knows how this occurred? Did creation happen at God's command, or did it happen without his command? He looks down upon creation from the highest heaven. Only he knows the answer -or perhaps he does not know. Rig Veda 10:129.1-7

    21. Sample Quiz Questions • What is common among these? • They all came from the same word • Are Bengali and English related languages? • Yes • Did the Aryans always lived in India? • No they came from the Caucasian Mountains

    22. Sample Quiz Questions • Did the Aryans called themselves as Hindus? • No – the other Aryans/Iranians called them Hindus • What were the four division of labors? • Priests, Soldiers, Traders, Farmers • Name one important Aryan literature • Vedas, Upanishads