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Chapter 10. Licit and Illicit Drug Use. Defining Addictions. patterned use and dependency on mind or mood altering substances interferes with academic/work family interpersonal relationships social/economic functioning physical/mental health.

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chapter 10

Chapter 10

Licit and Illicit Drug Use

defining addictions
Defining Addictions
  • patterned use and dependency on mind or mood altering substances
  • interferes with academic/work
  • family
  • interpersonal relationships
  • social/economic functioning
  • physical/mental health
slide3
The Physiology of Addiction- mental, emotional, and Behavioural function occur due to biochemical reactions between nerve cells and thebody
  • Neurotransmitters - biochemical messengers that exert influence at specific receptor cites on nerve cells
  • drugs can alter these cites - change moods / fill insufficient amounts
  • Tolerance - over time needing greater amounts of substance
the addictive process
The Addictive Process
  • avoid unpleasant feeling or situation
  • nurturing through avoidance
  • coping skills not developed
  • addiction increases
  • relationships deteriorate
signs of addiction four common symptoms
Signs of AddictionFour Common Symptoms

Compulsion / Obsession

excessive preoccupation with the behaviour / overwhelming need to perform it

Loss of Control - inability to predict consequences of behaviour as healthy or damaging

Negative Consequences - physical damage, legal trouble, financial, academic failure

Denial - inability to perceive behaviour is self-destructive

types of drugs stimulate depress hallucinate
Types of Drugsstimulate / depress / hallucinate
  • prescription drugs
  • OCT preparations
  • recreational substances
  • herbal preparations
  • illicit drugs

Psychoactive drugs

  • Mood / behaviour altering
routes of administration of drugs how the drug is taken into the body
Routes Of Administration of Drugs …how the drug is taken into the body
  • Oral Injestion - mouth
  • Injection - hupodermic needle
  • Intravenous injection - vein
  • Intramuscular injection - muscles
  • Subcutanious injection- fat below skin
routes of administration of drugs how the drug is taken into the body1
Routes Of Administration of Drugs …how the drug is taken into the body
  • Inhalation - nostrils
  • Suppositories - inserted into anus or vagina - melt at body temp.
  • Inunction - through skin
drug use abuse and interactions
Drug Use, Abuse, and Interactions
  • drug misuse - using drug for other reasons than intended
  • drug abuse - excessive use
  • Environmental factors- main-effect & side-effect
  • Set and Setting
individual response to psychoactive drugs set setting
Individual Response to Psychoactive DrugsSET & SETTING
  • Set - how the person thinks……. Mindset - while under the influence
  • physical, emotional and social factors / work together or against to influence the drug’s effect
  • Setting - external factors / drug taken in a quiet place vs. a loud party
drug interactions
Drug Interactions
  • Polydrug use - multiple medication / illicit drugs - simultaneously
  • Synergism - two or more drugs taken….produce different effect
  • Antagonism - two or more drugs working on same receptor site
drug interactions1
Drug Interactions
  • Inhibition - drugs compete for same receptor site / reduce effectiveness of each one
  • Intolerance - two or more drugs produce uncomfortable symptoms
  • Cross - tolerance - developed tolerance to one drug that reduces effectiveness of similar drug
prescription drugs types
Prescription DrugsTypes
  • Antibiotics - fight bacteria / infections
  • Analgesics - pain relievers
  • Prostaglandin inhibitors - inhibit production & release / associated with pain from arthritis+ menstruation
  • Sedatives - CNS - Induces sleep / reduces anxiety
prescription drugs types1
Prescription DrugsTypes!!!
  • Tranquilizers - CNS depressants / relax body + calm anxiety
  • Antidepressants - used to treat clinically diagnosed depression
  • Amphetamines - stimulants / associated dangers
  • Rebound effects - withdrawal from stimulants / serious / depression, nausea, violence
  • Generic Drugs - chemical names not brand names
over the counter oct drugs
Over-the-Counter (OCT) Drugs

Nonprescription Drugs

  • self-diagnoses / self-treatment
  • Safe? Abuse? Harmful!!!!!!

Types:

  • Analgesic / pain killers / use common + wide spread
  • Cold, Cough, Allergy, and Asthma Relievers - Don’t cure / reduce symptoms
  • Stimulants - used to keep awake! All night paper writing - students
over the counter otc drugs
Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drugs
  • Sleeping Aids and Relaxants - induce sleepy/ drowsy feeling
  • Dieting Aids - “appetite suppressant” - a stimulant which can be dangerous
  • Sympathomimetics - induce stress reaction
over the counter oct drugs1
Over-the-Counter (OCT) Drugs

Laxatives - softens stool +

relieves constipation

  • use for weight loss / ineffective

Diuretics - promotes increased urination - for weight loss ineffective / water replenished and creates chemical imbalances

illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell
Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell
  • Although illegal widely used and remains a problem in Canada
  • Controlled Substances
  • Cocaine - powerful stimulant - leaves from South American Shrub -3.8% casual use 1.4% regular in Canada
  • Effects…….
  • Serious results to physical, mental and social health
illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell1
Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell
  • Amphetamines - addictive stimulant that improve alertness, lessen fatigue and improve mood
  • Marijuana - chopped leaves + flowers from cannabis - heightens reactions to environmental stimuli
illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell2
Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell
  • Hashish - thick / sticky resin from cannabis plant
  • Marijuana and Medicine - used to reduce nausea in cancer patients and to reduce eye pressure for glaucoma
illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell3
Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell
  • opiates
  • narcotics (Greek for Stupor) are derived from the parent drug opium
  • opium - made from milky juice of poppy seeds
  • morphine - pain reliever
  • codeine - found in cough medicine and painkillers
illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell4
Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell
  • Heroin - illegally manufactured from morphine / injected into blood stream
  • Methadone Maintenance -treatment for people addicted to opiates - synthetically produced
illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell5
Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell

Psychedelics - distort sensory information

Reticular formation - relay information to other parts of the brain

Synesthesia - sensory messages are misinterpreted

Hallucinations - images perceived as real but are not

illicit drugs illegal to possess produce or sell6
Illicit Drugs…… illegal to possess, produce or sell
  • Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) - causes sensory disruptions - “ACID”
  • Mescaline - hallucinogenic drug
  • Peyote - cactus / has parts that create hallucinogenic effects
  • Psilocybin - chemical in mushroom causes hallucinogenic effects
designer drugs synthetically produced drug similar effects to illicit drugs
Designer Drugs - Synthetically produced drug / Similar effects to Illicit Drugs

Manufactured by

underground chemists

Three types available

analogues

  • phencyclidine (PCP)
  • amphetamine
  • methamphetamine
inhalants sniffed or inhaled
Inhalants - sniffed or inhaled

Amyl Nitrate - “poppers or rush”

  • a vasodilator - used to enhance orgasm / fainting, dizziness, warmth, skin flushing

Nitrous Oxide - “laughing gas” creates a state of euphoria / floating / illusions

  • overdose - unconsciousness, coma or death
steroids artificial forms of testosterone promotes muscle growth strength
Steroids - artificial forms of testosterone / promotes muscle growth + strength
  • Ergogenic aid
  • Athletic performance
  • Recreational use widespread to look a certain way- BIG!
  • Adverse effects - mood swings (“roid rage”), acne, liver tumors, higher cholesterol levels, hypertension,kidney disease, immune system weakening
  • HIV - shared needles!!!
steroids artificial forms of testosterone promotes muscle growth strength1
Steroids - artificial forms of testosterone / promotes muscle growth + strength
  • Women - masculine traits / lowered voice, increased facial + body hair , male pattern baldness, enlarged clitoris, decreased breast size, changes to menstrual cycle
steroids artificial forms of testosterone promotes muscle growth strength2
Steroids - artificial forms of testosterone / promotes muscle growth + strength
  • Men - shuts down body’s natural production of testosterone
  • develop breasts
  • testicles atrophy
  • Is it Worth it????
drugs are they worth it
Drugs: Are They Worth IT?
  • The impact to society is devastating!!!!!
  • Crime
  • Relationships
  • School / Work
  • Lifestyle
  • Health
  • Fun
  • Denial
  • What is the REAL problem??
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