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Session 9 Networking & Operating Systems (part 2). IPv6, OSI, Standards. Networking & Operating Systems. IPv6. 1995 – RFC 1752 IPng 1998 – RFC 2460 IPv6 Functional enhancements for a mix of data streams (graphic and video) Driving force was address depletion 128-bit addresses

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slide1
Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

Session 9Networking & Operating Systems(part 2)

ipv6 osi standards
IPv6, OSI, Standards

Nassau Community College

ITE153 – Operating Systems

Networking & Operating Systems

slide3
IPv6

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • 1995 – RFC 1752 IPng
  • 1998 – RFC 2460 IPv6
  • Functional enhancements for a mix of data streams (graphic and video)
  • Driving force was address depletion128-bit addresses
  • Started in Solaris 2.8, Windows 2000
ipv6 packet w extension headers
IPv6 Packet w/Extension Headers

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

osi layers
OSI Layers

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

osi environment
OSI Environment

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

internet standards and rfcs
Internet Standards and RFCs

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • Internet Architecture Board (IAB)- overall architecture
  • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)- engineering and development
  • Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)- manages the IETF and standards process
request for comments rfc
Request For Comments (RFC)

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • RFCs are the working notes of the Internet research and development community
standardization process
Standardization Process

Nassau Community College

ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • Stable and well understood
  • Technically competent
  • Substantial operational experience
  • Significant public support
  • Useful in some or all parts of Internet

Key difference from ISO: operational experience

rfc publication process
RFC Publication Process

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

hands on exercises
Hands-onExercises

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

what is my ipaddress
What Is My IPAddress?

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • You can find it for your interface using any one of the commands:ifconfigifconfig –aifconfig [interface]netstat -i
here s how i bring the interface up
Here’s How I Bring the Interface Up

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • Assume my interface is eth0, then use:ifconfig eth0
  • You will get:

eth0 Link encap:EthernetHWaddr00:30:1b:48:dc:3d

inet addr:192.168.0.100 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0

inet6 addr: fe80::230:1bff:fe48:dc3d/64 Scope:Link

UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1

RX packets:1494920 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:1219954 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000

RX bytes:1621598747 (1.6 GB) TX bytes:302524693 (302.5 MB)

Interrupt:17

here s an example
Here’s An Example:

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • Assume my interface is eth0, then use:ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.100 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255 up
  • You probably don’t have permission to do this 
how do i know i can get out on the network
How Do I Know I Can Get Out On the Network?

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • We use the ping command
  • It is very simple. It sends an ICMP_ECHO_REQUEST packet to a target host and waits for an answer
  • It is one of the workhorses of network debugging
  • Here’ an example:ping www.google.edu
  • Some sites disable ping responses!
ping sample
Ping Sample

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • [email protected]:~$ ping www.google.com
  • PING www.l.google.com (74.125.226.208) 56(84) bytes of data.
  • 64 bytes from lga15s28-in-f16.1e100.net (74.125.226.208): icmp_req=1 ttl=55 time=9.82 ms
  • 64 bytes from lga15s28-in-f16.1e100.net (74.125.226.208): icmp_req=2 ttl=55 time=9.86 ms
  • 64 bytes from lga15s28-in-f16.1e100.net (74.125.226.208): icmp_req=3 ttl=55 time=10.7 ms
  • 64 bytes from lga15s28-in-f16.1e100.net (74.125.226.208): icmp_req=4 ttl=55 time=13.6 ms
  • ^C
  • --- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
  • 4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3004ms
  • rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 9.821/11.013/13.607/1.545 ms
netstat command to check routing
netstat Command to Check Routing

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • The netstat command provides a wealth of information about the state of your computer's networking software, including interface statistics, routing information, and connection tables
  • Here are some typical commands to
    • monitor connection status: netstat -a
    • see interface status: netstat -i
    • display routing table: netstat -r –n
    • View operational stats: netstat -s
nslookup command
nslookup Command

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • The nslookup command is a very old command (used in both UNIX and DOS/Windows) to query the DNS database
  • Here is an example:nslookup www.google.com
dig command
dig Command

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • The dig command is in functionality, but has more sensible defaults, provides more info, and has a nicer user interface
  • Here are a few examples:dig www.google.comdig google.com anydig google.com mxdig google.com nsdig -x 216.239.34.10
  • This can get even more involved:dig +nocmd google.com any +multiline +noall +answer
important urls
Important URLs

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • Internetworking Technology Handbook – Cisco’s excellent and extensive Wiki on networking technology
  • http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfcsearch.html- great place to search RFCs
  • Dig How To Guide - an excellent explanation, with lots of examples, on how to effectively use the dig command line tool
  • Linux: Check Network Connection Command – good explanation of the ss and netstat commands
  • IP Chicken – this displays your “public” IP address
homework
Homework

Nassau Community College ITE153 – Operating Systems

  • Review the Slides
  • Do the Exercise: ipconfig, ping, netstat, nslookup, & dig
  • Complete the Take-Home Exam
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