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Exceptions. Errors. Low-level errors Divide by 0 Dereference a null pointer High-level, logical errors Inserting past the end of a list Calling list.get ( int ) when the list is empty Require immediate handling. Cause of errors. User error Giving a bad file name

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errors
Errors
  • Low-level errors
    • Divide by 0
    • Dereference a null pointer
  • High-level, logical errors
    • Inserting past the end of a list
    • Calling list.get(int) when the list is empty
  • Require immediate handling
cause of errors
Cause of errors
  • User error
    • Giving a bad file name
    • Trying to undo when nothing has been done
  • Programmer error
    • Bugs
  • These errors are dealt with by an exception class.
handling errors
Handling errors
  • Exceptions deal with errors
  • The exception class passes information about the error that just occurred
    • from where the error is detected
    • to where the error will be resolved
  • Exceptions allow us to separate problem detection from problem resolution
handling exceptions
Handling exceptions
  • Throw the exception
  • Catch and handle the exception
  • Catch it, then re-throw it or throw a different exception
  • Ignore the exception
    • If there is no handler to deal with the exception, then a default terminate function is called
throw
Throw
  • Exceptions are “thrown”
    • To a part of the code that can handle them
    • Halts current code
    • Control transferred to a “catch clause”
  • When a program runs into an error that it cannot handle
  • Many throw expressions take a string initializer but not all
try blocks
Try blocks
  • Try blocks wrap a series of statements
    • Can be nested
    • Followed by one or more catch clauses
  • Try block is a local scope
    • Any variable declared inside is not accessible outside of the block (including catch clauses)
  • Exceptions are “thrown” from insidetry blocks
catch clauses
Catch clauses
  • Catch what is thrown
  • Catch clause has 3 parts:
    • Keyword catch
    • Exception specifier (the type of exception)
    • And a block of code
  • Often called “handlers” because they handle the exception
  • The order handlers appear is important
    • For a specific try block, the catch clauses are examined in order of their appearance
try catch block
Try/catch block
  • Catch blocks can only be entered by catching thrown statements
  • Syntax

try{

//program statements

}

catch (exception-specifier){

//handler statements

}//…can have more than one catch clause

rethrow
Rethrow
  • If a catch cannot completely handle an exception, the catch clause can throw the exception to another catch further up the list of function calls
  • Not followed by a type or expression
    • Syntax:
      • throw;
  • can only appear in a catch
functions can tell compiler what type of throw
Functions can tell compiler what type of throw
  • throw()
    • Tells the compiler the function does not throw an exception
    • void myFunction(inti) throw();
  • throw(…)
    • Tells the compiler the function can throw an exception
    • void myFunction(inti) throw(…);
  • throw(type)
    • Tells the complier the function can only throw an exception of type type
    • void myFunction(inti) throw(int);
throw1
Throw
  • We can throw exceptions in the middle of a function

//…

if(!)

throw runtime_error(“Not true.”);

//if the statement was true, just continue on

//…

catch
Catch
  • Similar to throw, catch(…) is a catch-all handler
    • It can catch an exception of any type
  • It is often used with a rethrow expression
  • Syntax:

void myFunction() {

try{

//program statements

}catch(…) {

//work to partially handle the exception

throw;

}

}

standard exceptions class
Standard exceptions class
  • exception
    • Most general kind of problem
    • Provides little information about the error, only that it has occurred
    • Takes in NO string initializer
  • runtime_error
    • Can only be detected at run time
    • Some more specific types of runtime_error
      • range_error : outside of meaningful value range
      • overflow_error : computation that overflowed
standard exceptions
Standard Exceptions
  • logic_error
    • Detected before run time
    • Some more specific logic_errors
      • invalid_argument : inappropriate argument
      • length_error : attempt to create an object larger than the maximum size for that type
      • out_of_range : used a value outside of the valid range
  • Both runtime and logic errors require string initializers
    • Used to provide additional information about the error that occurred.
stack unwinding
Stack unwinding
  • When looking for a catch, each function in which a catch is not found is popped off the stack
    • If a throw is in a try block, then the catch clause associated with the try block is examined first
    • If no matching catch, then this function is exited and the search continues in the function that called this one
  • When a function exits due to an exception, local objects are destroyed properly
catchable types
catchable types
  • When an exception is thrown, it can be caught by the following handlers:
    • One that can catch any type
    • One that accepts the same type as was thrown
      • Or a reference to the same type as was thrown
    • One that accepts the base class as the type thrown
      • Or a reference to the same base class as was thrown
      • A catch handler for a base class must not precede the catch handler for the derived class
terminate
terminate
  • Exceptions cannot remain unhandled
  • If no matching catch is found, terminate is called
  • terminate is a library function which ends your program
slide21
In tic-tac-toe, a player can only enter X’s and O’s. Write an exception to deal with a player entering something other than X’s and O’s.
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