Damage Illustrations. Approach. Figure 14: Moderate Damage - Approach Slab Settlement at the Abutment. Note the cracking of the concrete barrier as well. Figure 15: Moderate to Major Damage - Approach Settlement After Northridge.
(I-10 and SR 118 Damage from Northridge EQ http://itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/jpodocs/repts_te/13775.html)
Moderate to Severe Damage - Spalled column, buckling of primary reinforcement, compression failure, and lack of adequate transverse reinforcement to brace the primary reinforcement
(1971 San Fernando Earthquake)
Figure 48: Moderate Damage: Spalling and cracking of abutment, movement at ground level. Note that the rebar is not rusting, an indication that damage is recent.
1994 Northridge Earthquake, California
Figure 59: Movement of the trusses at Pier 23 of the San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge during the Loma Prieta earthquake. The shoe (at the right) hit the two pipes that carried electric wires and dented them. These dents indicated that there was at least 3 to 4 inches of movement.