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The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire because PowerPoint Presentation
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The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire because

The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire because

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The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire because

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  1. Quick Write The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire because The emperors were not crowned by the popes The byzantine emperors did not acknowledge the Holy Roman empire The people who lived there did not practice Christianity It did not restore imperial unity to Western Europe Which one of the following does not describe the crusades? The campaigns showed European military superiority to Muslim armies One of the crusades conquered Constantinople instead of recapturing Palestine. Crusaders brought back many Muslim ideas including agricultural products back to Europe Crusaders traded eagerly with merchants in the Eastern Mediterranean

  2. High Middle Ages

  3. European Middle Ages • Early / Post-Classical (Ds) • “the Dark Ages” disorder, disunity, despair • High Middle Ages (Cs) • Rise of crown, commerce & cities • Late Middle Ages • 3 disasters: church scandal,100 years war & BLACK DEATH

  4. Post-Classical/ Early Middle Ages • 550 – 900 CE – fragmented & chaotic • Catholic church only source of intellectual development & literacy • Church power • Manorialism • Feudalism

  5. primogeniture Holy Roman Emperor Capetian kings Norman conquest More stability High Middle Ages Advancements

  6. W. -France: new hereditary monarchy established: Hugh Capet – Capetian dynasty E. - German States: Holy Roman Empire Develops as an “elected” emperor under the Pope 10th century – out of the ruins of the Frankish empire Greater Stability…

  7. Church main authority Aristocrats vs. monarchical power /Magna Carta 1st English parliament Three key estates Conflicts church & Kings Limited Government Control

  8. The Crusades

  9. Overview • The Crusades were a series of religious wars fought between Christians and Muslims • Fought over control of the city of Jerusalem • Though eight Crusades occurred between 1096 and 1300, only the first four hold true historical significance

  10. Causes of the Crusades • Muslims controlled Palestine and threatened Constantinople • Pope wanted to reclaim Jerusalem and reunite Christendom (which had split in 1054) • Kings and religious leaders wanted to rid themselves of quarrelsome knights • European merchants looked to take control of Muslim-held trade routes in the Mediterranean • Crusaders were assured of a place in heaven

  11. The Effects of the Crusades • Increased contact between the Europeans and Muslims led to: • Revival of the Mediterranean Sea Lanes • Europeans were introduced to goods from Southwest Asia: • Spices, ivory, oranges, gun-powder, East Asian foods • Islamic forms of math and science entered European society • Algebra, optics, advanced engineering (stone fortifications) • Decline of Constantinople

  12. The West Expands Reasons: • Pop growth • Memory of Rome • Religious zeal Reconquista of Spain Vikings Crusades • cultural diffusion & trade

  13. Christianity was unifying element Little classical thought before 1000 Crusades  classical works Aristotle especially Western Civilization

  14. Trends in the West… • food production • population • strong monarchies • travel • trade • towns… • urban culture

  15. Rise of Trade, Towns, & Cities

  16. Role of Italy • Italian towns had not decayed to same degree as rest of W. Europe • Italy’s location – trade cities • Crusades resulted in trade of goods – luxury items from the east & middle east • Connection between Mediterranean trade system & rest of Europe

  17. Flanders • Belgium and N. France • Textile capital of Europe; • woolen industry • Center of trade in European Northern Coast: across France, down Rhine River and across English Channel

  18. Hanseatic League • Trading towns along Baltic Coast & North Eastern Europe • 70 member cities • Established permanent trading routes • Traded in fur, timber, fish, grain

  19. Fairs Champagne (France) had the best known fairs

  20. Role of Medieval Fairs • Goods from all over world were exchanged (at first by barter then by money) at fairs • Trade items from East: spices, medicine, perfume, dyes, gems, silk, cotton, linen, gold, silver, ivory • Trade items from Middle East: textiles, rugs, grains, fruit • Exchange of ideas!

  21. Development of Money Economy • led to decline of feudal system & emergence of market economy • Capital: wealth earned, accumulated and invested • Coinage – silver, then gold • Banking - Italian “banca” = money changers table • European traders less wealthy than Islamic counterparts

  22. Growth of Cities and Towns Resulted from: • the revival of trade • serfs leaving manor for opportunities • strong monarchies Developed Where? Near well-traveled roads, transfer points or waterways

  23. set quality standard loans to members ill / disabled members Protected businesses set prices /conditions prohibited competition supervised training… Guilds

  24. Universities Develop • Begin as learning guilds (an association of people organized for the purpose of learning and teaching) • Limited to specific subjects (ex: theology, law, medicine) • Academic degrees develop (B.A., M.A. PhD)

  25. Scholasticism • Intellectual movement that attempted to reconcile faith & reason • Faith = Church teachings • Reason = Aristotle’s logic • Scholastic philosophers

  26. Thomas Aquinas • 13th century Italian priest • Wrote Summa Theologica • reason was God’s gift • church doctrine could be supported through logic • Proposed 5 logic proofs of the existence of God...

  27. Vernacular • Vernacular: language of everyday speech • people spoke the language that had developed in their own countries from Latin or German roots (Eng, Fr, Ger, Ital, Span) • each kingdom a distinct identity • literature more accessible

  28. Vernacular Writers • Dante Alighieri: The Divine Comedy, epic poem in Italian that describes an imaginary journey through hell, purgatory and heaven

  29. 9 circles

  30. Geoffrey Chaucer Canterbury Tales • English narrative poems that described a group of pilgrims who tell stories to amuse one another on their way to Thomas Beckett’s shrine

  31. Gothic Architecture • Characteristics: walls high & thin, flyingbuttresses supported weight of roof, large stained-glass windows, pointedarches • Symbolism: • ground plan in shape of a cross • with high walls and pointed arches, everything appeared to be “reaching towards heaven”

  32. Flying Buttresses Clerestory Windows

  33. Seville’s Cathedral

  34. Toledo’s Cathedral

  35. MUST KNOW: Gothic vs. Romanesque

  36. Illuminated Page

  37. The Rise of a Middle Class leads to the decline of Medieval Feudalism • The kings will use the Middle Class to weaken the nobility / aristocracy • revival of trade will lead to the more rapid exchange of everything – including the Black Death