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ORDER: PRIMATES. Monkeys, Apes, Prosimians, and Us. Primate Evolutionary History. Primate Evolutionary History. The origin of the order is commonly given as 65 MYA (million years ago) Some estimates go back to 85 MYA. Purgatorius unio.

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order primates

ORDER: PRIMATES

Monkeys, Apes, Prosimians, and Us

primate evolutionary history3
Primate Evolutionary History
  • The origin of the order is commonly given as 65 MYA (million years ago)
  • Some estimates go back to 85 MYA
purgatorius unio
Purgatorius unio

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Purgatorius_BW.jpg

purgatorius unio5
Purgatorius unio
  • 55-65 MYA
  • Lived in N. America and Europe
  • Its fossils first discovered in Montana
primate evolutionary history6
Primate Evolutionary History
  • About 50 MYA, pretty soon after the dinosaurs go extinct, there is an explosion in the number of primate species—about 6000 species arise.
  • The 200 species now living are the what remains of this differentiation, and the descendants of the survivors.
linnaean classification9
Linnaean classification
  • Note: When writing the binomen of a species, use italics, and capitalize the name of the Genus!
the primates a quick tour12
The Primates, a quick tour…

The most basic groups to think about:

  • Prosimians
  • Monkeys
  • Apes and humans
typical primate characteristics
Typical Primate Characteristics

Adapted from Jurmain et al. (1998)

primate characteristics
Primate characteristics
  • Limbs and locomotion:
    • Erect or semi-erect posture
    • Generalized limb structure allows a variety of locomotive behaviors.
primate characteristics30
Primate characteristics
  • Limbs and locomotion:
    • Prehensile hands and feet.
      • Five digits
      • Opposable thumbs and big toes
      • Fingernail instead of claws
slide31
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SLOW LORIS

primate characteristics32
Primate characteristics
  • Generalized diet and teeth
primate characteristics33
Primate characteristics
  • The senses and the brain:
    • Color vision (diurnal primates only)
primate characteristics36
Primate characteristics
  • The senses and the brain:
    • Stereoscopic vision (depth perception)
      • Eyes to the front
      • Visual information from each eye transmitted to visual centers in both hemispheres in the brain
      • Visual information processed by specialized brain structures
primate characteristics38
Primate characteristics
  • The senses and the brain:
    • Large and complex brains
      • Visual information processing
      • Large areas involved with the hand
primate characteristics40
Primate characteristics
  • Maturation, Learning and Behavior
    • Long gestation
    • Single births instead of litters
    • Delayed maturation
    • Tendency to live in mixed-age groups
    • Dependence on learned behavior
primate sociality
Primate Sociality
  • Theories:
    • Improved access to food
    • Protection from predators
primate sociality45
Primate Sociality
  • Types of groups:
    • Multi-male/multi-female
    • Most common type.
    • Chimps and Bonobos usually live in mm/mf fission-fusion groups.
primate sociality48
Primate Sociality
  • Types of groups:
    • Pair-bond
    • Examples: Gibbons and Siamangs, some monkeys
primate sociality50
Primate Sociality
  • Types of groups: One-Male/Multi Female
    • Gorilla
socioecology
Socioecology
  • The study of animals and their habitats that looks for patterns of relationship between the environment and social behavior.
socioecology58
Socioecology
  • Assumes that the various components of an environment have evolved together.
socioecology59
Socioecology
  • Food (amounts, qualities, distribution)
  • Distribution of water
  • Predators (distribution, types)
  • Distribution of sleeping sites
  • Activity patterns (nocturnal/diurnal)
  • Relationships with other species
  • Impact of human activities
socioecology60
Socioecology
  • Of the baboon…
    • (MM/MF)
    • Savanna
    • Predators can be common
  • Of the Slow Loris…
    • Solitary foraging
    • Insectivor
    • Slow moving
sociobiology
Sociobiology
  • The study of the relationship between behavior and natural selection. Sociobiological theory states that certain behaviors or behavioral pattern have been selected for because they increase reproductive success in individuals.
sociobiology62
Sociobiology
  • Infanticide
  • K-selection (vs. r-selection)
  • Male / Female behaviors
  • Sexual dimorphism
challenges to sociobiology
Challenges to sociobiology
  • The lack of long-term data:
    • On demography
    • On social behavior
    • Resource distribution
  • Little data on relatedness through male line
  • How to assign reproductive costs and benefits to particular behaviors