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Person- centered and existential therapies : A comparison. Lecture in Predeal , Romania, May, 18, 2013 Dr. Gerhard Stumm, Vienna. Menu. Existential therapies Person- centered therapies Rogers‘ link to existential philosophy and dialogues with existential therapists Commonalities

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Person- centered and existential therapies : A comparison


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    1. Person-centeredandexistential therapies: A comparison Lecture in Predeal, Romania, May, 18, 2013 Dr. Gerhard Stumm, Vienna Gerhard Stumm

    2. Menu • Existential therapies • Person-centeredtherapies • Rogers‘ link to existential philosophyanddialogueswith existential therapists • Commonalities • Differences • Mutual enrichment Gerhard Stumm

    3. Paradigms in psychotherapy psycho- dynamic CBT existential DA integrative EH BS humanistic EA PCT systemic Gerhard Stumm

    4. Family tree of existential therapies and its proponents (adapted from Yalom, 1980 and Cooper, 2003a; 2004) Existential philosophy as „Home of the ancestors“ Kierkegaard Heidegger Jaspers Sartre Buber Gerhard Stumm

    5. Daseinsanalysis Martin Heidegger Ludwig BinswangerMedard Boss 1889–1976 1881–1966 1903–1990 Gerhard Stumm

    6. Daseinsanalysis • againstsubject-object-split • sensitivityforontologicalgivenslikedeath, transitoriness, bottomlessness, anxiety, guilt, as fundamental problem • Being-in-the-worldmeanswehavetobeandmasterit in ourownway calloftheworld, choicesandfutureorientation • therapygoal: opennesstotheworld(cf. Rogers‘ opennesstoexperience) Gerhard Stumm

    7. Logotherapy Viktor Frankl 1905–1997 Gerhard Stumm

    8. Logotherapy • approachtoovercomemeaninglessnessor lack ofmeaning („existential vacuum“)  „meaning-centered“ • strivingformeaningascrucialmotivation(Man isfundamentallyfreeto find meaning) • tragictriad: death, guiltandsuffering • dimensional ontology: body, psycheandspirit • meaning: themostvaluableoption in a situation • values: creative, experiential, attitudinal • ratherpoormethodicalrepertoire Gerhard Stumm

    9. Existential Analysis (A. Längle) • 4 basicmotivations: relatednesstotheworld, tolife, andtooneself, besidesmeaning • focuson self-acceptance, emotions, authenticity, taking a stance, and a moredialogicalunderstandingofthetherapeuticrelationship • muchwider methodicalframework (biographicalperspective, PEA, …) • overlapwithperson-centered! (e.g. authenticity, feelings, relationship, „livingwithinternalconsent“) Gerhard Stumm

    10. American Humanistic-existential Approach Rollo May James Bugental Irvin Yalom 1909 –1994 1915–2008*1931 Kirk Schneider *1956 Gerhard Stumm

    11. American Humanistic-Existential Approach • inauguratedby Rollo May  Bugental, Yalom (analyticelements;defenseresp. explorationof existential givens), Schneider: existential-integrative • subjectiveexperienceofclients, transparencyoftherapist, interpersonal dynamics, challengeoftheclient • varietyofmethods: vivification, confrontation, roleplay, dreamwork, visualization, experiments, … Gerhard Stumm

    12. British School Van Deurzen(antecedent: Laing) • „thereisnocureforlife“ (lifeincludes imperfection, dilemma, tragedy, …) • de-pathologizing (scepticalofdiagnoses  lifeproblems) • therapyasphilosophical „discourse“ *1951 Spinelli:phenomenological-existential approach • self-concept, dialogicalco-exploring • reservationagainst a technicalstance Gerhard Stumm

    13. Person-centeredtherapies Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Gerhard Stumm

    14. orthodox/traditional client-centered/person-centered orientation various sub-orientations experiential orientation Classical Client-Centered Therapy (CCT) (‘non-directive’) relational / dialogic orientation interactional (interpersonal) existential disorder specific (incl. Pre-Therapy) creativity oriented Motivational Interviewing (MI) integrative Focusing- oriented Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT) --------- 2 -------------------------------------------------- 3 -------------------------------------------------- 4 -----------‘levels of interventiveness’ (according to M. Warner, 2000) Overview of person-centered and experiential therapies Gerhard Stumm

    15. Tribes of the family exist.. RD PCEAT IP CCT FOT integrative EFT Pre-Therapy disorder- specific MI Gerhard Stumm

    16. Classical Client-centeredTherapy (CCT) • (principled) non-directivity (non-experiential) • trust in theclient‘sself-governingcapacity • ethicallybased non-authoritarian, nocoercionand power overtheclient • attitudesandtheirimplementationassufficient • „non-diagnosticmindset“ (Brodley) • L. Sommerbeck: back to Rogers 1 (1951) Gerhard Stumm

    17. PCT asdialogical • a tradition in PCA thathasstartedwiththelate Rogers • from a „de-personalized“ therapist (Rogers, 1951) toonewhoinvolveshim-/herselfandexpresseshim-/herselftransparently (e.g. Rogers & Sanford, 1984) • beingwithandbeingcountertotheclient • e.g. Pfeiffer, Schmid, Mearns, Cooper, (Lietaer) Gerhard Stumm

    18. Relational Depth “A state of profound contact and engagement between two people, in which each person is fully real with the Other, and able to understand and value the Others’sexperiences at a high level’’ (Mearns& Cooper, 2005, p. xii). • coined by Mearns (1996) • based on the fundamental need for relating deeply (more than UPR) Gerhard Stumm

    19. Interpersonal orientation • focus on client‘s relational patterns • interpersonal reasonsforincongruence • corrective emotional (relational) experiences • non-complementary (a-social) responsesoftherapist • immediacy (Carkhuff) and meta-communicationaboutthe client-therapistinteraction Gerhard Stumm

    20. disorder-specific • mainly in theNetherlands, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Switzerland • Swildens, Finke, Teusch, Speierer, Binder, Sachse, Greenberg • necessaryforseverelydisturbedclients ascornerstoneforempathyand UPR • see also Pre-Therapylater on Gerhard Stumm

    21. Expressive ArtsTherapy • Natalie Rogers (*1928) drawingfrom „theoryofcreativity“ by her father „Creative Connection“ • Liesl Silverstone (England), Norbert Groddeck (Germany) Gerhard Stumm

    22. Focusing-OrientedTherapy Gene Gendlin • relationshipqualityandexperiencing • experiencing vs. concepts Felt Sense ascompass • Listening, Guiding, Response • process-directivity *1926 Gerhard Stumm

    23. Emotion FocusedTherapy • elaboratedby Les Greenberg (drawingfrom Laura Rice)*1945 • primary adaptive vs. maladaptive emotions modification (transformation) of emotional schemata • emotionsareprimary (not experiencesas Rogers andGendlinadvocated) • markersandtasks Gerhard Stumm

    24. integrative • integrationof different suborientations, above all person-centeredandexperiential • diversity in theoryandpracticealongcommonprinciples • Lietaer, Keil, Bohart, Cooper, Stumm, … Gerhard Stumm

    25. Rogers‘ links to existential philosophy und dialogueswith existential therapists • Sören Kierkegaard (1813-1855) • Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980): no personal contact • Martin Buber (1878-1965): publicdialogue April, 18, 1957 atthe University of Michigan • Paul Tillich (1886-1965): March, 7, 1965 in thestudioof San Diego State College • Rollo May (1909-1984): seriesofthreearticles 1981/1982 • Ronald D. Laing (1927-1989): meeting 1978 in London Gerhard Stumm

    26. Existential orientationofGendlin • familiarwith Heidegger (Welt, Umwelt, Mitwelt, Eigenwelt) • experiential = existential • Focusing: „accesstoexistence“ • Felt Sense isimplicit, pre-conceptualand intentional (alwaysregarding a situationor a topic  interactionwiththeworld  feltshift = basefordecisions) • selfasprocess ≠ concept/object • existential encounter: „relationshipcomesfirst“ • existential neurosis: lossofFelt Sense  structurebound Gerhard Stumm

    27. Existential orientation – Prouty‘sPre-Therapy • based on existential phenomenology • concrete, immediate experience (phenomenon in itself) drawingfrom Sartre, Farberand Scheler • awarenessofphenomenalfield (intentionality) = world, selfandothers reality, affective and communicative contact = existential contact (vs. existential autism) • existential empathy Gerhard Stumm

    28. Existential orientation (cont.) • Swildens:Process-oriented Client-centeredtherapy (existential process, alibi, myth, hindranceofchoice, existential phase) • Cooper: pluralistic, integration • Greenberg: futureoriented, bundleofoptions, choiceandresponsibility, nogivennature but mental abilitytocreatemeaning; importanceof existential givens Gerhard Stumm

    29. Phenomenology • startingpointis „livedexperience“ („internalevidence“) • „tothethingsthemselves“, liketheyappear • phenomenologicalmethod: 1.) „bracketing“ ofpriorknowledge& assumptions etc. („epochè“)  impartiality, putasideknowledge, prejudices & bias 2.) descriptionofphenomena („whatappears?“ = reduction, „howisit?“ = construction, „isitthatway?“ = destruction) 3.) attentionfor all phenomena („horizontalization“) Gerhard Stumm

    30. Commonalitiesof ET & PCT • phenomenologicalattitude • appreciationofsubjectiveexperienceanduniquenessofeveryperson • experientialexploration • processquality • reservationagainststaticdiagnoses • authenticityastherapygoal Gerhard Stumm

    31. Differences • fundamentallyconstructivenatureof Man vs. resultofstrugglebetweenpolarities • actualizingtendency vs. permanent choices • growthandenhancement vs. limitations • optimistic vs. tragicsideofexistence • conditionsofworth vs. immanent tensionsandcontingency • freedomfrom … vs. freedomto … • tendencytowardsautonomy vs. innatebeing-with Gerhard Stumm

    32. Differences • hereandnow vs. future • self-actualization vs. realizationofmeaning • self-experience vs. self-distancingandself-transcendence • facilitation vs. challengeandconfrontation Gerhard Stumm

    33. Fruitful tensions • personal encounter and functional-professional relationship (ethical and clinical) • phenomenological openness and clinical knowledge • the psychotherapist as alter-ego and the Other • non-directive pacing and responding and initiating an experiential attitude of exploring in the client • facilitating and challenging Gerhard Stumm

    34. Fruitful tensions • enhancing and maintaining client’s capacities • being without intention and transparent offering of one’s own thoughts • trust in the client’s wisdom and supplementation with unobtrusive suggestions • therapeutic attitudes and implementing them (via non-standardized techniques) Gerhard Stumm

    35. Mulţumesc! Questions? Statements Discussion Gerhard Stumm