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OPERATING DECISIONS. UNCOLLECTIBLE ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE. When credit is extended, some amount of uncollectible receivables is generally inevitable. If uncollectible receivables are probable and can be estimated , an estimate should be made

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slide2

UNCOLLECTIBLE ACCOUNTS

RECEIVABLE

  • When credit is extended, some amount of
  • uncollectible receivables is generally inevitable.
  • If uncollectible receivables are probable and
  • can be estimated, an estimate should be made
  • of the amount uncollectible and recorded in the
  • period in which the revenue was produced
  • (allowance method).
  • The Allowance for Doubtful Accounts is a contra
  • accountto Accounts Receivable.
slide4

INVENTORY RECORDING METHODS

  • Periodic inventory system
  • -- Inventory value is determined only at particular
  • times, such as end of the accounting period.
  • -- Purchases recorded in “Purchases” account
  • -- Cost of goods sold determined at the end of the
  • period following a physical count
slide5

INVENTORY RECORDING METHODS

  • Perpetual inventory system
  • -- The ongoing physical flow of inventory is
  • monitored, and the cost of the inventory items
  • is maintained on a continual basis.
  • -- Purchases recorded directly in “Inventory”
  • account
  • -- Cost of goods sold is determined at the point
  • sales revenue is recognized
slide6

COST FLOW METHODS

An allocation of total cost of goods available for sale:

Ending inventory

Cost of goods

Available

(Beg. Inven. + Purch)

Cost of goods sold

The cost flow assumption used for accounting purposes

can be different from the physical flow of goods through

the company.

slide7

INVENTORY VALUES

COST FLOW ASSUMPTIONS

Specific cost

identification

Average cost

First-in, first-out (FIFO)

Last-in, first-out (LIFO)

first in first out
FIRST-IN, FIRST-OUT
  • Cost of the oldestinventory items are included in Cost of Goods Sold
  • Cost of the newest items are included in the Ending Inventory
last in first out
LAST-IN, FIRST-OUT
  • Cost of the newestinventory items are included in Cost of Goods Sold
  • Cost of the oldest items are included in the Ending Inventory
pensions
PENSIONS
  • A pension is cash compensation received by an employee after the employee has retired
  • There are two types of pension plans:
    • Defined contribution plan
    • Defined benefit plan
defined contribution plan
DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLAN
  • This type of plan requires the company to contribute a fixed amount of money to a pension fund each year on behalf of the employee
  • The amount of cash contributed to the pension fund during the year is reported as pension expense
defined benefit plan
DEFINED BENEFIT PLAN
  • This type of plan requires the company to pay employees a fixed monthly cash amount after they retire based on a pension formula that considers years of service and highest salary
postretirement benefits other than pensions
POSTRETIREMENT BENEFITS OTHER THAN PENSIONS
  • Other employee benefits provided after retirement include
    • Health care plans
    • Life insurance plans
  • Accounting rules require that these benefits be recognized as an expense and a liability as they are incurred
income taxes
INCOME TAXES
  • Income tax expense and the amount paid for income tax during a period are different for two reasons:
    • Income taxes are not paid in the same year in which they are incurred
    • A firm may choose one accounting method for tax purposes and another for financial reporting purposes
income taxes1
INCOME TAXES
  • Differences in financial income and taxable income are due to timing differences
  • Timing differences can be
    • Permanent or
    • Temporary
timing differences
TIMING DIFFERENCES
  • Permanent differences
    • Enter into accounting income, but never into taxable income
    • These are statutory differences between GAAP and the Internal Revenue Code
    • For example, interest on state and local bonds is included in financial income, but not in taxable income
timing differences1
TIMING DIFFERENCES
  • Temporary differences
    • Some transactions affect taxable income in a different period from financial accounting income
      • Depreciation methods
      • Rent received in advance
    • The affects of these differences are recorded as deferred tax assets or liabilities and shown on the balance sheet
deferred taxes
DEFERRED TAXES
  • Deferred Tax Liability
    • Requires a payment in the future
    • Is the expected income tax on income earned but not yet taxed
    • Is not an existing legal liability
  • Income Taxes Payable, based on taxable income on the tax return, is an existing legal liability
deferred taxes1
DEFERRED TAXES
  • Deferred Tax Asset
    • Represents the expected benefit of a future tax deduction for an expense item that has already been incurred but is not yet deductible for tax purposes
    • It can only be recognized if it is “more likely than not” that future income will be realized against which the deduction can be offset
capitalize versus expense
CAPITALIZE VERSUS EXPENSE
  • An expenditure that is expected to benefit future periods is capitalized as an asset
  • All other expenditures are treated as expenses
capitalize versus expense1
CAPITALIZE VERSUS EXPENSE
  • Research and development costs
    • Research is defined as
      • Those activities undertaken to discover new knowledge that will be useful in developing new products, services, or processes or that will result in significant improvement of existing products or processes
    • Development
      • Applies the research findings to develop a plan or design for new or improved products and processes
capitalize versus expense2
CAPITALIZE VERSUS EXPENSE
  • Research and development costs are expensed in the period incurred due to the uncertainty surrounding the future economic benefits of R&D activities
capitalize versus expense3
CAPITALIZE VERSUS EXPENSE
  • Software development requires special treatment
    • All costs incurred up to the point where technological feasibility is established are to be expensed as research and development
    • After technological feasibility is established, costs incurred are capitalized
      • Determining technological feasibility is a matter of judgement
capitalize versus expense4
CAPITALIZE VERSUS EXPENSE
  • Oil and gas exploration costs
    • Two methods of accounting for the cost of “dry holes”:
      • Full cost method
        • All exploratory costs are capitalized and allocated to the cost of successful wells
      • Successful efforts method
        • Exploratory costs for dry holes are expensed, and only exploratory costs for successful wells are capitalized
capitalize versus expense5
CAPITALIZE VERSUS EXPENSE
  • Advertising costs
    • Generally, advertising costs are expensed due to the uncertainty of their future economic benefits
    • In selected cases where the future benefits are more certain, advertising costs should be capitalized
contingencies
CONTINGENCIES
  • A contingency is an uncertain circumstance involving a potential gain or loss that will not be resolved until some future event occurs
contingencies1
CONTINGENCIES
  • Three important definitions:
    • Probable
      • Likely to occur
    • Remote
      • Not likely to occur
    • Reasonablypossible
      • More than remote but less than likely
contingent losses
Likelihood

Probable

Reasonably possible

Remote

Accounting Action

Recognize a probable liability if the amount can be reasonably estimated.

Disclose a possible liability in a note.

No recognition or disclosure unless contingency represents a guarantee. Then, note disclosure is required.

CONTINGENT LOSSES
contingent gains
Likelihood

Probable

Reasonably possible

Remote

Accounting Action

An asset may be recorded if it seems assured and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Normally you would simply disclose facts in a note.

Disclose a possible asset in a note, but be careful to avoid misleading implications. In practice, possible contingent gains are often not disclosed.

No recognition or disclosure.

CONTINGENT GAINS
accounting for lawsuits
ACCOUNTING FOR LAWSUITS
  • If the facts of the case indicate that a loss is probable and the amount of the loss can be estimated, a loss should be reported on the income statement and a liability should be reported on the balance sheet
accounting for environmental liabilities
ACCOUNTING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LIABILITIES
  • Most companies do not reflect these loss contingencies as liabilities on the balance sheet because the future cost of the cleanup is very difficult to estimate