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Islam Part II, Lesson 2 Roots of Islamic Pluralism PowerPoint Presentation
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Islam Part II, Lesson 2 Roots of Islamic Pluralism

Islam Part II, Lesson 2 Roots of Islamic Pluralism

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Islam Part II, Lesson 2 Roots of Islamic Pluralism

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  1. Islam Part II, Lesson 2Roots of Islamic Pluralism Age of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, to Umayyad Dynasty, and the further separation of Shi’a & Sunni Islam

  2. Islamic History unfolds…. • From the year 622 (Hijra) to 632 (death of the Prophet) the following patterns are observed: • Continue spread of message and new converts • Continued war with Mecca, including divinely assisted battleds (Badr) and battles which fortified the faith, through struggle (Uhud) • 630CE: 10 000 Muslims and Prophet march in Mecca to rededicate the Kabbah and forgive the sins of those who fought against Islam

  3. Unity-vs- Perspectival Truth • Islam, at its foundation, asserted unity which is symbolized in many of its key ideas: • Tawid • Hajj • Zakat • Ramadan • Sunna etc. • "Perspectival Truth": • When considering the events after the Prophet's Death, we need to be clear that we are using the Hadiths as our source • Hadiths are similar to Paul's Epistles • Hadiths seek consistency • Truthworthy line of transmission, about what the Prophet said and did • Sunni and Shi'a share many same sources….but…... • Sunni Hadiths: refer to the work of Al Bukhari • Shi'aHadiths: refer to the work of Kolayani

  4. Abu Bakr Muhammad makes a gesture of “enormous trust” in Abu Bakr before death Asks him to lead the prayers in the mosque as imam — a highly visible role virtually always undertaken, when possible, by Muhammad himself. Historically, the imam of a mosque has always been a leader in his local Muslim community Ali Had obeyed orders from Muhammad to fight in Syria Others– including Umar– had disobeyed Umar was one of the Prophets most important supporters Also father in law (daughter Hafsah was a wife of the Prophet) Muhammad had requested to dictate a letter, and asked Umar to write this down Umar created a scene, which led to Muhammad kicking he, and others, out Letter never written Umar keeps death of Prophet hidden until Abu-Bakr arrives Claim this was deliberate, to avoid Ali being proclaimed as the successor, and to allow Abu-Bakr the chance to seize power Muhammad’s last illness

  5. Abu Bakr At Saqifah, the first Muslims of Medina, the Ansar, were about to elect a successor Abu Bakr stops them– and informs them that such a decision would split the Muslims community in 2 He argues that successor must be from Quraysh Umar elects Abu Bakr All present vote in favour and pledge their loyalty (bay’ah), which makes the decision binding Ali Ali was not told of the meeting at Saqifah Instead, he was washing and tending to the body of the Prophet, dutifully preparing the body for burial Reject the election of Abu Bakr on the grounds the bayah’s were forced, or pressured. Events at Saqifah

  6. Abu Bakr On the way from his last pilgrimage in 632, the Prophet stopped in front of a well and gave a speech at this location: Ghdir Khumm Speech given at this location, from Hadith collection, Musna Prophet quoted: “Of whomsoever I am the mawla, Ali is his mawla” Mawla has many meanings Claim this was a simple expression of friendship, to help some soldiers like Ali, after they had complained about him in battle The fact that there was a dispute about succession, means that no one took the above sentence as a binding rule Ali "...for whoever I am his master (mawla), Ali is his master (mawla)..." According to the Shi'a, this hadith, Hadith-i ghadir, indicates the intent of Muhammad: succession trusted to Ali The Shi'a say that there were 120,000 witnesses to this declaration, including Umar and Abu Bakr. Ghadir Khumm:

  7. The outcome? • Ali defers to Abu Bakr. • Sunni= meaning, the people of the custom of the Prophet and his community • Shi’a = short for “Shiate Ali” = Party of Ali • Shi’a’s claim: Ali deferred to Abu Bakr to keep the Muslim community unified, not because he agreed with the majority • Sunni’s claim, Ali’s deferral was self-willed, and therefore legitimate

  8. Enter the age of the “Rightly Guided Caliphs” • Starting with Abu Bakr, Islamic leadership is carried by 4 strong leaders who tried to accomplish the political ideals set forth in the Quran. Hence, these Caliphs are called “Rightly Guided” • Caliph, from Khalifah = deputy; representative • Caliph considered to be the political guide for the Islamic community • Spiritual guidance, left to the Quran, and the scholars who were hard at work compiling and interpreting it. • Caliphate not the same sort of political organization as the Catholic church (see 337, text). • Abu Bakr (632-634) • Umar (634-644) • Uthman (644-656) • Ali (656-661) • Use the reading to outline for each Caliph, “challenges” and “accomplishments”. • Also, explain who Mu’awiyah is + the Umayyads + Hussain, and why these figures are important in further understanding Shi’a Islam.

  9. Challenges Left to unify the Umma after the shocking death of Muhammad Fought many wars with local Arabs, who rebelled against Islam Accomplishments Successful general Secured the entire Arabian peninsula for Islam Decided that to protect Islam, war with neighboring Byzantium and Persian Empires was required Didn’t live to see these wars unfold Respected for humility, wisdom Died after 2 years. Before passing away, nominated Umar as Caliph. Abu Bakr(632-634)

  10. Challenges Administering the new expanded territories Accomplishments Captured Jerusalem, freed people, expelled Romans Successful against Byzantium Defeated Persians Death Was stabbed by Christian Slave in 644 in Medina Died 3 days later Before death, elected a body of 6 to choose the next leader. Ali was one of them. Uthman was chosen Umar (634-644)

  11. Challenges Disputes about consistency, and Quranic revelation Administering growing Empire Made mistake of promoting too many of his close relatives as Governors Led to political instability Accomplishments Compiled the Quran, into written form Expanded Islam in to North Africa, East to the border of China, and into North India Uthman (644-656) Death in 656, due to assassination by Egyptians who were unhappy that cousin Amir was chosen as Governor of Egypt

  12. Challenges Was immediately challenged by Aishah (one of Muhammad’s wives). Accused Ali for being ‘lax’, for not seeking out Uthman’s murderer Challenged by Mu’awiyah, Uthman’s cousin, who refused to accept Ali as Caliph until Uthman’s murderer brought to justice Agreed to arbitration and election with Mu’awiyah, which caused Ali’s strongest supporters to denounce him, and branch into a separate sect, Kharijites Accomplishments Defeated Aishah’s challenge; respectfully and humanely treated her after her defeat Ali (656-661) Kharijites assassinate Ali in 661, for his ‘betrayal’ This signals the 1st split in the political community of Islam

  13. Mu’awiyah and Umayyad • Mu’awiyah had himself elected as Caliph • Ali’s sons, Hasan and Hussain, waved their rights, and waited for the death of Mu’awiyah to claim the Caliphate • Mu’awiyah elected his son, Yazid, as Caliph rather than Hussain • Hussain challenged Yazid, but was outnumbered and overpowered • For the next 100 years, Caliphate was hereditary.. • More a Monarchy.. • Political Capital moved from Medina to Damascus • Death of Hussain– and his martyrdom– commemorated by Shi’as. • Muharram • For Shi’a– this event symbolized the triumph of evil and tyranny over good, and the perseverance of Hussain to fight for truth despite the odds • Also symbolizes Shi’a commitment to persuee the “truth” • Also symbolizes key feature of Shi’a belief– the world is not as it seems.. • Truth is hidden, and must stay hidden for truth to survive… • Here the Path of Hasn (concealment—Taqiyya) ) becomes legitimized…

  14. Sunni-vs-Shi’aExoteric-vs-Esoteric • For these reasons, Shi’a Islam developed as an esoteric(private, secretive, enigmatic) tradition. • Inward, speculative, mystical, where guidance is not explicit, because the world is not what is seems. • Conversely, Sunni Islam developed as exoteric.(=external, not hidden) • Sunni= traditions of Muhammad and his early community • View the world, Quran, hadith collections positively.. • Not requiring inner, speculative, contemplation, because the world is as it appears.. • It can be trusted, within the Sunni tradition • See Madhabs to see the variety of Quranic interpretation

  15. 1. Claim Ali to be the true successor of Muhammad. Ghadir Khum cited as the source of authority for this claim. 2. Reject Caliphate of Abu Bakr and successors 3. Reject the hereditary monarchy started by Mu’awiyah 4. Assert that leadership of Islam, falls to direct descendents of Ali, called Imams. Why? This is the path of truth the Prophet intended. Contrast to world of deception, inaugrated with Abu-Bakr and made worse under Mu’awiya. 5. Assert that the last Imam (either the 7th or 12th, here there is division) vanished without dying, into another realm 6. This Imam– Mahdi– forever present in the world, providing guidance and power 7. Mahdi will eventually return, to bring the end of the world 8. Belief that the world is unsafe for the descendents of Muhammad—the Prophet having been poisoned, and Prophet’s descendents largely murdered 9. Ascribe to doctrine of taqiyya—conceal beliefs to avoid argument, suffering and persecution, and to protect their tradition in light of Sunni hostility. Esoteric Shi’a world view

  16. Sunni-vs-Shi’a • Free will • Sunni: though free will exists, Allah has ultimately control. So, free will less emphasized. Obedience to Shariah (law) more emphasized. • Shi’a: free will exists, in the effort to preserve life and truth. So, free will must be exercise in a world of deception– even if it as the expense of literal interpretation of Shariah (law)