Compensation. The Importance of Compensation. Impacts an employer’s ability to attract and retain employees. Ensure optimal levels of employee performance in meeting the organization’s strategic objectives. Compensation’s components Direct compensation in the form of wages or salary
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The Importance of Compensation • Impacts an employer’s ability to attract and retain employees. • Ensure optimal levels of employee performance in meeting the organization’s strategic objectives. • Compensation’s components • Direct compensation in the form of wages or salary • Base pay (hourly, weekly, and monthly) • Incentives (sales bonuses and or commissions) • Indirect compensation in the form of benefits • Legally required benefits (e.g., Social Security) • Optional (e.g., group health benefits)
Theory Behind Compensation • Equity Theory • Comparing inputs and outputs of a similar co-worker • Perceived inequity affects employee effort • Expectancy Theory • People are motivated by intrinsic and extrinsic outcomes they desire. • People will only be motivated if outcome is possible. • People will only be motivated if outcome is contingent.
Equity Theory • Internal equity • Comparison of my input / reward ratio with that of similar others. • Employees may seek to address imbalance by changing their inputs. • Fairness of pay differentials between different jobs in the organization can be established by job ranking, job classification, point systems and factor comparisons. • External equity • Fairness of organizational compensation levels relative to similar jobs in other organizations.
“Monkeys Demand Equal Pay” A recent study shows brown capuchin monkeys refused to play along when they saw another monkey get a better payoff for performing the same work. The monkeys were trained to trade a granite token for a piece of cumber. When the reward was the same for both monkeys, they took the cucumber 95 percent of the time. But it was a different story when one monkey was given something better -- namely, a grape. Then, the other monkey often pitched a fit -- either throwing the token, refusing to eat the cucumber or giving it to the other monkey. Associated Press 2003
Equity Theory Fairness about pay differentials among individuals who hold the same job can be established by using: • Seniority-based pay systems that reward longevity. • Merit-based pay systems that reward employee performance. • Incentive plans that allow employees to receive part of their compensation based on their job performance. • Skills-based pay systems. • Team-based pay plans that encourage cooperation and flexibility in employees.
Types of Base Pay Systems • Job-based • Pay the job (not the person) • Market-based (external equity focus) • Point factor-based (internal equity focus) • Skills / knowledge-based • Pay the person (not the job) • 62% of F1000 firms used some type of skill based pay in 1999
When to Use a Job-based Pay Policy • A job-based pay work best in situations where: • Job duties are stable. • Skills are generic. • Employees move up through the ranks over time. • Jobs are fairly standardized within the industry. • Drawbacks of a job-based pay system • Discounts individual ability. • Discourages lateral movement. • Tends to be bureaucratic, mechanistic, and inflexible. • Employees’ perceptions of equity are more important than market or point data.
Individual-based Compensation • Individual-based compensation works when: • The firm has a relatively educated workforce. • Employees often do different jobs • Technology changes frequently. • Employee participation and teamwork are encouraged. • Opportunities for upward mobility are limited. • Opportunities to learn new skills are present. • The costs of employee turnover and absenteeism in terms of lost production are high.
Pricing Jobs • First conduct job analysis • Qualifications • KSA’s • Non-quantitative methods • Job Ranking (create hierarchy of jobs) • Job Classification (create groups of similar jobs) • Quantitative Methods • Point factor systems • Compare “compensable factors” • Market pricing
Hay Factors Know-how Problem solving Accountability National Position Evaluation Plan (MAA) Skill Effort Responsibility Job Conditions Compensable Factors Characteristics in the job that the organizational values and that help achieve its objectives.
Variable Pay Incentives • Linking performance to pay • Individual – Bonuses, piece-rates, stock options • Team – Bonuses and awards • Plant / Unit / Business – Gainsharing, profit sharing • Corporation – ESOP’s • “Line of sight” is the perceived link between individual behavior and the reward.
Pay for Performance Requires • Definition of performance • How are we going to measure and compare people? • Distribution of performance • Can we distinguish high and low performers? • Decide the increase for each level of performance. • How large a difference between high and low performers?
Key Strategic Issues in Compensation • Determining compensation relative to the market. • Striking a balance between fixed and variable compensation. • Deciding whether or not to utilize team-based versus individual pay. • Creating the appropriate mix of financial and non-financial compensation. • Developing a cost-effective compensation program that results in high performance.
New Thinking for the New Millennium • Strategic approaches to may compensation (pay) systems more responsive: • Pay the person for individual worth (knowledge, skills and competencies) rather than for the value of a job they perform. • Reward excellence through a pay for performance compensation that establishes a clear relationship between a significant amount of pay and attainment of organizational objectives. • Individualize the pay system to give employees choices in how they are rewarded and what reward they receive.