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Solar System History Ch 9. Big Bang Theory Solar Nebula Planetesimals Terrestrial Planets. Big Bang Hypothesis.

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solar system history ch 9
Solar System HistoryCh 9

Big Bang Theory

Solar Nebula

Planetesimals

Terrestrial Planets

big bang hypothesis
Big Bang Hypothesis

13-14 billion years ago, all matter and energy was concentrated into a single, inconceivably small (and very dense) point. This hypothesis stems from a mathematical solution to the problem

This hypothesis was tested through the Doppler shift in stellar spectrum, which implied that matter was flying apart in all directions throughout the universe

the hubble telescope
The Hubble Telescope

Can detect faint light that has travelled for billions of years, …. from the start of the current universe

nebular hypothesis and the origin of our solar system
Nebular Hypothesis and the origin of our Solar system
  • Older than 4.56 billion years ago
  • Gravity is the cause of “condensation” of the cloud
  • Cloud contracted WHILE spinning ever faster
  • H and He are the most common elements
  • H and He collected to form fusion reactions
nebular hypothesis and the origin of our solar system5
Nebular Hypothesis and the origin of our Solar system
  • Fusion is more energetic and atomic fission but requires greater pressures
  • Hydrogen “fuel” burns to create He
nebular hypothesis and the origin of our solar system9
Nebular Hypothesis and the origin of our Solar system
  • Planetesimals (early-stage, immature, small planets) on the periphery of this contracting, spinning dust cloud began to clump together locally.
  • Denser materials fell closer to the sun
  • Less dense materials (gases) could escape to greater distances from the sun e,.g., Jupiter floats in water
nebular hypothesis and the origin of our solar system11
Nebular Hypothesis and the origin of our Solar system
  • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars are called the terrestrial planets
how old is the earth15
How old is the Earth?

Younger than the planetesimals 4.56 by

how old is the earth16
How old is the Earth?

Older than the moon ……… oldest rocks are4.47 by

…... the moon started to form earlier … 4.5 by

what was happening between 4 56 and 4 5 by
What was happening between 4.56 and 4.5 by ?
  • (1) Accretion to create the first earth… a “magma” earth (100 million-year-period
what happened to the earth at 4 5 by
What happened to the Earth at 4.5 by ?
  • Earth was hit by a giant bolide (before 4.47 by) that remelted it and led to the formation of the moon
what was happening between 4 5 and 4 4 by
What was happening between 4.5 and 4.4 by ?
  • (1)Mainly cooling and differentiation: Gravity pulled the denser materials toward the core when the Earth was still molten